Volume 647, March 2021
|Number of page(s)||19|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||09 March 2021|
The JADE code: Coupling secular exoplanetary dynamics and photo-evaporation
Observatoire Astronomique de l’Université de Genève,
Chemin Pegasi 51b,
2 Department of Space Research & Planetary Sciences, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
3 Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
Accepted: 23 December 2020
Close-in planets evolve under extreme conditions, which raises questions about their origins and current nature. Two evolutionary mechanisms thought to play a predominant role are orbital migration, which brings them close to their star, and atmospheric escape under the resulting increased irradiation. Yet their relative roles remain poorly understood, in part because we lack numerical models that couple the two mechanisms with high precision and on secular timescales. To address this need, we developed the Joining Atmosphere and Dynamics for Exoplanets (JADE) code, which simulates the secular atmospheric and dynamical evolution of a specific planet around its star, and can include the perturbation induced by a distant third body. On the dynamical side, the three dimensional evolution of the orbit is modeled under stellar and planetary tidal forces, a relativistic correction, and the action of the distant perturber. On the atmospheric side, the vertical structure of the atmosphere is integrated over time based on its thermodynamical properties, inner heating, and the evolving stellar irradiation, which results, in particular, in extreme ultraviolet induced photo-evaporation. The JADE code is benchmarked on GJ436 b, which is a prototype of the evaporating giants on eccentric, misaligned orbits at the edge of the hot Neptunes desert. We confirm previous results that the orbital architecture of GJ436 b is well explained by Kozai migration and bring to light a strong interplay between its atmospheric and orbital evolution. During the resonance phase, the atmosphere pulsates in tune with the Kozai cycles, which leads to stronger tides and an earlier migration. This triggers a strong atmospheric evaporation several billion years after the planet formed, refining the paradigm that mass loss is dominant in the early age of close-in planets. These results suggest that the edge of the desert could be formed of warm Neptunes whose evaporation was delayed by Kozai migration. They strengthen the importance of coupling atmospheric and dynamical evolution over secular timescales, which the JADE code will allow for one to simulate for a wide range of systems.
Key words: planetary systems / planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability / planet-star interactions / planets and satellites: atmospheres / methods: numerical / stars: individual: Gliese 436
© ESO 2021
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