Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||22 October 2019|
Predictions for the diffuse cosmic dipole at radio frequencies from reionization imprints
INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia, Via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
2 CNR, Istituto di Scienze Marine, Via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
3 Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Giuseppe Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara, Italy
4 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40127 Bologna, Italy
Accepted: 3 September 2019
The cosmological reionization and thermal history, following the recombination epoch and the dark age, can be studied at radio frequencies through the tomographic view offered by the redshifted 21 cm line and the integrated information offered by the diffuse free-free emission, coupled to the Comptonization distortion, which is relevant at higher frequencies. For these types of signals, current theoretical predictions span a wide range of possibilities. The recent EDGES observations of the monopole disagree with the typical standard models and call, if confirmed, for non-standard physical processes and/or for an early population of extragalactic sources producing a remarkable radio background at high redshifts that is almost consistent with the ARCADE 2 claim of a significant excess of cosmic microwave background (CMB) absolute temperature at low frequency. These signatures can be observed both in global (or monopole) signal and fluctuations from very large to small angular scales. The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to an ideal reference frame, at rest with respect to the CMB, produces boosting effects in several observable quantities. They are remarkable in the anisotropy patterns at low multipoles, particularly in the dipole, with frequency spectral behaviours depending on the spectrum of the monopole emission, as previously studied in the context of CMB spectral distortions. We present here a novel investigation of this effect at radio frequencies, aimed at predicting the imprints expected in the redshifted 21 cm line signal and in the diffuse free-free emission plus the Comptonization distortion for several representative models. Furthermore, we consider the same type of signal, but as expected from the cosmological (CMB plus potential astrophysical signals) radio background determining the offset for 21 cm redshifted line. The combination of the four types of signal and their different relevance in the various frequency ranges is studied. This approach of linking monopole and anisotropy analyses, can be applied on all-sky or relatively wide sky coverage surveys as well as to a suitable set of sky patches. By relying only on the quality of interfrequency and relative data calibration, the approach in principle by-passes the need for precise absolute calibration, which is a critical point of current and future radio interferometric facilities.
Key words: diffuse radiation / cosmic background radiation / dark ages, reionization, first stars
© ESO 2019
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