Volume 631, November 2019
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Published online||21 October 2019|
The survey of planetary nebulae in Andromeda (M 31)
II. Age–velocity dispersion relation in the disc from planetary nebulae
European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
2 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, 85748 Garching, Germany
4 NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada
5 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Santiago de Chile, Chile
6 UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA
7 Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, 2611 Weston Creek, ACT, Australia
Accepted: 20 September 2019
Context. The age–velocity dispersion relation is an important tool to understand the evolution of the disc of the Andromeda galaxy (M 31) in comparison with the Milky Way.
Aims. We use planetary nebulae (PNe) to obtain the age–velocity dispersion relation in different radial bins of the M 31 disc.
Methods. We separate the observed PNe sample based on their extinction values into two distinct age populations in the M 31 disc. The observed velocities of our high- and low-extinction PNe, which correspond to higher- and lower-mass progenitors, respectively, are fitted in de-projected elliptical bins to obtain their rotational velocities, Vϕ, and corresponding dispersions, σϕ. We assign ages to the two PN populations by comparing central-star properties of an archival sub-sample of PNe, that have models fitted to their observed spectral features, to stellar evolution tracks.
Results. For the high- and low-extinction PNe, we find ages of ∼2.5 and ∼4.5 Gyr, respectively, with distinct kinematics beyond a deprojected radius RGC = 14 kpc. At RGC = 17–20 kpc, which is the equivalent distance in disc scale lengths of the Sun in the Milky Way disc, we obtain σϕ, 2.5 Gyr = 61 ± 14 km s−1 and σϕ, 4.5 Gyr = 101 ± 13 km s−1. The age–velocity dispersion relation for the M 31 disc is obtained in two radial bins, RGC = 14–17 and 17–20 kpc.
Conclusions. The high- and low-extinction PNe are associated with the young thin and old thicker disc of M 31, respectively, whose velocity dispersion values increase with age. These values are almost twice and three times that of the Milky Way disc stellar population of corresponding ages, respectively. From comparison with simulations of merging galaxies, we find that the age–velocity dispersion relation in the M 31 disc measured using PNe is indicative of a single major merger that occurred 2.5–4.5 Gyr ago with an estimated merger mass ratio ≈1:5.
Key words: galaxies: individual: M 31 / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics / planetary nebulae: general
© ESO 2019
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.