Volume 626, June 2019
|Number of page(s)||18|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||30 May 2019|
ALMA survey of Class II protoplanetary disks in Corona Australis: a young region with low disk masses★
Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE),
2 European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
3 Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Roosevelt Rd, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
4 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands
5 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
6 Center for Integrative Planetary Science, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
7 Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
8 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
9 Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (IRyA-UNAM), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico
10 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1, Canada
11 Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
12 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
13 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
14 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94249, 1090 GE, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
15 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
16 Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677, Japan
17 Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
18 Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
19 Astrobiology Center of NINS, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
20 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
21 Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019, USA
Accepted: 3 April 2019
Context. In recent years, the disk populations in a number of young star-forming regions have been surveyed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Understanding the disk properties and their correlation with the properties of the central star is critical to understanding planet formation. In particular, a decrease of the average measured disk dust mass with the age of the region has been observed, consistent with grain growth and disk dissipation.
Aims. We aim to compare the general properties of disks and their host stars in the nearby (d = 160 pc) Corona Australis (CrA) star forming region to those of the disks and stars in other regions.
Methods. We conducted high-sensitivity continuum ALMA observations of 43 Class II young stellar objects in CrA at 1.3 mm (230 GHz). The typical spatial resolution is ~0.3′′. The continuum fluxes are used to estimate the dust masses of the disks, and a survival analysis is performed to estimate the average dust mass. We also obtained new VLT/X-shooter spectra for 12 of the objects in our sample for which spectral type (SpT) information was missing.
Results. Twenty-four disks were detected, and stringent limits have been put on the average dust mass of the nondetections. Taking into account the upper limits, the average disk mass in CrA is 6 ± 3 M⊕. This value is significantly lower than that of disks in other young (1–3 Myr) star forming regions (Lupus, Taurus, Chamaeleon I, and Ophiuchus) and appears to be consistent with the average disk mass of the 5–10 Myr-old Upper Sco. The position of the stars in our sample on the Herzsprung-Russel diagram however seems to confirm that CrA has an age similar to Lupus. Neither external photoevaporation nor a lower-than-usual stellar mass distribution can explain the low disk masses. On the other hand, a low-mass disk population could be explained if the disks were small, which could happen if the parent cloud had a low temperature or intrinsic angular momentum, or if the angular momentum of the cloud were removed by some physical mechanism such as magnetic braking. Even in detected disks, none show clear substructures or cavities.
Conclusions. Our results suggest that in order to fully explain and understand the dust mass distribution of protoplanetary disks and their evolution, it may also be necessary to take into consideration the initial conditions of star- and disk-formation process. These conditions at the very beginning may potentially vary from region to region, and could play a crucial role in planet formation and evolution.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / submillimeter: ISM / planets and satellites: formation / stars: pre-main sequence / stars: variables: T Tauri, Herbig Ae/Be / stars: formation
© P. Cazzoletti et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Open Access funding provided by Max Planck Society.
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