Volume 624, April 2019
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||22 April 2019|
A dynamically young, gravitationally stable network of filaments in Orion B★
Université Grenoble Alpes, IRAM,
38000 Grenoble, France
2 IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d’Hères, France
3 Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Université, École normale supérieure, CNRS, LERMA, Université PSL, 75005 Paris, France
4 School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen’s buildings, Cardiff CF24 3AA, UK
5 Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, LERMA, Université PSL, 92190 Meudon, France
6 Grupo de Astrofísica Molecular, IFF-CSIC, Calle Serrano 121-123, 28006 Madrid, Spain
7 Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
8 Instituto de Astrofísica, Ponticia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago, Chile
9 CNRS, IRAP, 9 avenue colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
10 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
11 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
12 IRAM, Avenida Divina Pastora, 7, Núcleo Central, 18012 Granada, España
13 Maison de la Simulation, CEA-CNRS-INRIA-UPS-UVSQ, USR 3441, Centre d’étude de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette, France
Accepted: 6 February 2019
Context. Filaments are a key step on the path that leads from molecular clouds to star formation. However, their characteristics, for instance their width, are heavily debated and the exact processes that lead to their formation and fragmentation into dense cores still remain to be fully understood.
Aims. We aim at characterising the mass, kinematics, and stability against gravitational collapse of a statistically significant sample of filaments in the Orion B molecular cloud, which is renown for its very low star formation efficiency.
Methods. We characterised the gas column densities and kinematics over a field of 1.9 deg2, using C18O (J = 1−0) data from the IRAM 30 m large programme ORION-B at angular and spectral resolutions of 23.5″ and 49.5 kHz, respectively. Using two different Hessian-based filters, we extracted and compared two filamentary networks, each containing over 100 filaments.
Results. Independent of the extraction method, the filament networks have consistent characteristics. The filaments have widths of ~0.12 ± 0.04 pc and show a wide range of linear (~1−100 M⊙ pc−1) and volume densities (~2 × 103−2 × 105 cm−3). Compared to previous studies, the filament population is dominated by low-density, thermally sub-critical structures, suggesting that most of the identified filaments are not collapsing to form stars. In fact, only ~1% of the Orion B cloud mass covered by our observations can be found in super-critical, star-forming filaments, explaining the low star formation efficiency of the region. The velocity profiles observed across the filaments show quiescence in the centre and coherency in the plane of the sky, even though these profiles are mostly supersonic.
Conclusions. The filaments in Orion B apparently belong to a continuum which contains a few elements comparable to already studied star-forming filaments, for example in the IC 5146, Aquila or Taurus regions, as well as many lower density, gravitationally unbound structures. This comprehensive study of the Orion B filaments shows that the mass fraction in super-critical filaments is a key factor in determining star formation efficiency.
Key words: ISM: clouds / ISM: structure / ISM: kinematics and dynamics / methods: data analysis / radio lines: ISM / ISM: individual objects: Orion B
© J. H. Orkisz et al. 2019
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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