Volume 621, January 2019
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||10 January 2019|
Multiple water band detections in the CARMENES near-infrared transmission spectrum of HD 189733 b
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University,
2 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada, Spain
3 Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg, Germany
4 Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, ESAC campus, Camino bajo del castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
5 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Calle Vía Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
6 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38026 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
7 Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
8 Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, c/ de Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
9 Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
10 Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
11 Centro Astronónomico Hispano Alemán, Observatorio de Calar Alto, Sierra de los Filabres, 04550 Gérgal, Spain
12 School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, UK
13 Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany
14 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
15 Departamento de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
16 School of Geosciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801, Israel
Accepted: 3 November 2018
Aims. We explore the capabilities of CARMENES for characterising hot-Jupiter atmospheres by targeting multiple water bands, in particular, those at 1.15 and 1.4 μm. Hubble Space Telescope observations suggest that this wavelength region is relevant for distinguishing between hazy and/or cloudy and clear atmospheres.
Methods. We observed one transit of the hot Jupiter HD 189733 b with CARMENES. Telluric and stellar absorption lines were removed using SYSREM, which performs a principal component analysis including proper error propagation. The residual spectra were analysed for water absorption with cross-correlation techniques using synthetic atmospheric absorption models.
Results. We report a cross-correlation peak at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 6.6, revealing the presence of water in the transmission spectrum of HD 189733 b. The absorption signal appeared slightly blueshifted at –3.9 ± 1.3 km s−1. We measured the individual cross-correlation signals of the water bands at 1.15 and 1.4 μm, finding cross-correlation peaks at S/N of 4.9 and 4.4, respectively. The 1.4 μm feature is consistent with that observed with the Hubble Space Telescope.
Conclusions. The water bands studied in this work have been mainly observed in a handful of planets from space. Being able also to detect them individually from the ground at higher spectral resolution can provide insightful information to constrain the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. Although the current multi-band detections can not yet constrain atmospheric haze models for HD 189733 b, future observations at higher S/N could provide an alternative way to achieve this aim.
Key words: planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: individual: HD 189733 b / techniques: spectroscopic / infrared: planetary systems
© ESO 2019
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