Detecting the imprint of a kilonova or supernova in short gamma-ray burst afterglows
1 American University of Sharjah, Physics Department, PO Box 26666 Sharjah, UAE
2 Laboratoire PTEAM, Faculté des sciences, Université Dr Yahia Fares, Pôle urbain, Médéa, Algeria
3 Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, France
Accepted: 24 September 2018
Context. Short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) result from mergers of two neutron stars or from collapsars, but probably at a smaller rate. In the first case, a kilonova occurs while in the second case a Type Ic supernova is expected.
Aims. Even if future observations of kilonovae in association with gravitational wave events provide better data, detecting a kilonova during an afterglow follow-up would remain useful for exploring the diversity of the kilonova phenomenon. As supernovae produce a weaker gravitational signal, afterglow follow-up will be the only possible method to find one. In this work, we identify the conditions of the burst energy, external density, kilonova mass, supernova luminosity, that are necessary for the detection of a kilonova or supernova in the follow-up of short GRB afterglows.
Methods. We have used a simple kilonova model to obtain the peak luminosities and times as a function of mass, expansion velocity and ejected matter opacity. Afterglow light curves are computed for a uniform medium and a stellar wind, in the kilonova and supernova cases, respectively.
Results. We represent, using diagrams of the burst kinetic energy vs. density of the external medium, the domains where the kilonova or supernova at maximum is brighter than the afterglow. In the kilonova case we vary the mass, the jet opening angle and the microphysics parameters; for supernovae, we consider SN 98bw-like and ten times dimmer events, and again vary the jet opening angle and the microphysics parameters.
Key words: gamma-ray burst: general / supernovae: general
© ESO 2018