Universidade de São Paulo, IAG, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária,
São Paulo 05508-900, Brazil
2 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy
3 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
4 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Santiago, Chile
5 Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. Fernández Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
6 Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, DCET, Rodovia Jorge Amado km 16, Ilhéus 45662-000, Bahia, Brazil
7 Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil
8 Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia
9 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
Accepted: 13 September 2018
Context. NGC 6558 is a bulge globular cluster with a blue horizontal branch (BHB), combined with a metallicity of [Fe/H] ≈ −1.0. It is similar to HP 1 and NGC 6522, which could be among the oldest objects in the Galaxy. Element abundances in these clusters could reveal the nature of the first supernovae.
Aims. We aim to carry out detailed spectroscopic analysis for four red giants of NGC 6558, in order to derive the abundances of the light elements C, N, O, Na, Al, the α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, and the heavy elements Y, Ba, and Eu.
Methods. High-resolution spectra of four stars with FLAMES-UVES at VLT UT2-Kueyen were analysed. Spectroscopic parameter-derivation was based on excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II.
Results. This analysis results in a metallicity of [Fe/H] = − 1.17 ± 0.10 for NGC 6558. We find the expected α-element enhancements in O and Mg with [O/Fe] = +0.40, [Mg/Fe] = +0.33, and low enhancements in Si and Ca. Ti has a moderate enhancement of [Ti/Fe] = +0.22. The r-element Eu appears very enhanced with a mean value of [Eu/Fe] = +0.63. The first peak s-elements Y and Sr are also enhanced, these results have however to be treated with caution, given the uncertainties in the continuum definition; the use of neutral species (Sr I, Y I), instead of the dominant ionized species is another source of uncertainty. Ba appears to have a solar abundance ratio relative to Fe.
Conclusions. NGC 6558 shows an abundance pattern that could be typical of the oldest inner bulge globular clusters, together with the pattern in the similar clusters NGC 6522 and HP 1. They show low abundances of the odd-Z elements Na and Al, and of the explosive nucleosynthesis α-elements Si, Ca, and Ti. The hydrostatic burning α-elements O and Mg are normally enhanced as expected in old stars enriched with yields from core-collapse supernovae, and the iron-peak elements Mn, Cu, Zn show low abundances, which is expected for Mn and Cu, but not for Zn. Finally, the cluster trio NGC 6558, NGC 6522, and HP 1 have relatively high abundances of first-peak heavy elements, variable second-peak element Ba, and the r-element Eu is enhanced. The latter is particularly high in NGC 6558.
Key words: stars: abundances / Galaxy: bulge / globular clusters: individual: NGC 6558
Observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO), under programme 93.D-0123A.
Tables A1 and A2 (Equivalent widths and Atomic data) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/619/A178
© ESO 2018