Solving non-LTE problems in rotational transitions using the Gauss–Seidel method and its implementation in the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator
1 Terahertz Technology Research Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo, 184-8795, Japan
2 Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, G1-17, Nagatsuda, 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama-City, Kanagawa Prefecture, 226-8502, Japan
3 Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Accepted: 26 August 2018
This article presents our implementation of a non-LTE solver in spherical symmetry for molecular rotational transition in static or expanding atmospheres. The new open-source code relies on the Gauss–Seidel Accelerated Lambda Iteration methodology that provides a rapid and accurate convergence of the non-LTE problems, which is now routinely used in astrophysical and planetary research. The non-LTE code is interfaced with the widely used package, the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS), to facilitate spectral line simulations for various viewing geometries. In this paper we describe the numerical implementation, provide the first validation results for the populations against two other non-LTE codes, and then discuss the possible application. The quantitative comparisons are performed using an established ortho-water non-LTE model applied to cases of optical thick and thin conditions of Ganymede’s atmosphere. The differences in populations expressed as excitation temperatures show very good agreement in both cases. Finally, we also apply this model to a sample of data from the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) instrument. The new non-LTE package is demonstrated to be fast and accurate, and we hope that it will be a useful addition to the planetary community. In addition, being open source and part of the ARTS, it will be further improved and developed.
Key words: radiative transfer / methods: numerical / submillimeter: planetary systems / planets and satellites: atmospheres
© ESO 2018
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.