Systematic study of magnetar-powered hydrogen-rich supernovae
Laboratorio de Procesamiento de Señales Aplicado y Computación de Alto Rendimiento, Sede Andina, Universidad Nacional de Río Negro, Mitre 630, 8400
2 Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (IALP), CCT-CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, La Plata, B1900FWA Argentina
3 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8583 Japan
4 Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, B1900FWA La Plata, Argentina
5 Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 Japan
Accepted: 31 August 2018
Context. It has been suggested that some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by a magnetar formed at the moment of the explosion. While this scenario has mostly been applied to hydrogen-free events, it may also be possible for hydrogen-rich objects.
Aims. We aim to explore the effect of including a magnetar on the light curves of supernovae with H-rich progenitors.
Methods. We have applied a version of our one-dimensional local thermodynamic equilibrium radiation hydrodynamics code that takes into account the relativistic motion of the ejecta caused by the extra energy provided by the magnetar. For a fixed red supergiant (RSG) progenitor, we have obtained a set of light curves that corresponds to different values of the magnetar initial rotation energy and the spin-down timescale. The model is applied to SN 2004em and OGLE-2014-SN-073, two peculiar Type II SNe with long-rising SN 1987A-like light curves, although with much larger luminosities.
Results. The presence of a plateau phase in either normal or superluminous supernovae is one possible outcome, even if a magnetar is continuously injecting energy into the ejecta. In other cases, the light curve shows a peak but not a plateau. Also, there are intermediate events with a first peak followed by a slow decline and a late break of the declining slope. Our models show that bright and long rising morphologies are possible even assuming RSG structures.
Conclusions. A large number of supernova discoveries per year reveal unexpected new types of explosions. According to our results, SLSNe II-P are to be expected, as well as a variety of light curve morphologies that can all be possible signs of a newly born magnetar.
Key words: supernovae: general / supernovae: individual: OGLE-2014-SN-073 / supernovae: individual: SN 2004em / supernovae: individual: peculiar-87A
© ESO 2018