Effects of electron distribution anisotropy in spectroscopic diagnostics of solar flares
Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov, Czech Republic
Accepted: 3 August 2018
Aims. We analyzed effects of the bi-Maxwellian electron distribution representing electron temperature anisotropy along and across the magnetic field on the ionization and excitation equilibrium with consequences on the temperature diagnostics of the flare plasma.
Methods. The bi-Maxwellian energy distributions were calculated numerically. Synthetic X-ray line spectra of the bi-Maxwellian distributions were calculated using non-Maxwellian ionization, recombination, excitation and de-excitation rates.
Results. We found that the anisotropic bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions transform to the nonthermal energy distributions with a high-energy tail. Their maximum is shifted to lower energies and contains a higher number of the low-energy particles in comparison with the Maxwellian one. Increasing the deviation of the parameter p = T∥/T⊥ from 1, changes the shape of bi-Maxwellian distributions and ionization equilibrium, and relative line intensities also increase. The effects are more significant for the bi-Maxwellian distribution with T∥ > T⊥. Moreover, considering different acceleration mechanisms and collisional isotropization it is possible that the bi-Maxwellian distributions with high deviations from the Maxwellian distribution are more probable for those with p > 1 than for those with p < 1. Therefore, distributions with p > 1 can be much more easily diagnosed than those with p < 1. Furthermore, we compared the effects of the bi-Maxwellian distributions on the ionization equilibrium and temperature diagnostics with those for the κ-distributions obtained previously. We found that they are similar and at the present state it is difficult to distinguish between the bi-Maxwellian and κ-distributions from the line ratios.
Key words: Sun: flares / Sun: UV radiation / radiation mechanisms: non-thermal
© ESO 2018