Period spacings in red giants⋆
IV. Toward a complete description of the mixed-mode pattern
LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris Diderot, 92195 Meudon, France
Accepted: 21 July 2018
Context. Oscillation modes with a mixed character, as observed in evolved low-mass stars, are highly sensitive to the physical properties of the innermost regions. Measuring their properties is therefore extremely important to probe the core, but requires some care, due to the complexity of the mixed-mode pattern.
Aims. The aim of this work is to provide a consistent description of the mixed-mode pattern of low-mass stars, based on the asymptotic expansion. We also study the variation of the gravity offset εg with stellar evolution.
Methods. We revisit previous works about mixed modes in red giants and empirically test how period spacings, rotational splittings, mixed-mode widths, and heights can be estimated in a consistent view, based on the properties of the mode inertia ratios.
Results. From the asymptotic fit of the mixed-mode pattern of a large set of red giants at various evolutionary stages, we derive unbiased and precise asymptotic parameters. As the asymptotic expansion of gravity modes is verified with a precision close to the frequency resolution for stars on the red giant branch (10−4 in relative values), we can derive accurate values of the asymptotic parameters. We decipher the complex pattern in a rapidly rotating star, and explain how asymmetrical splittings can be inferred. We also revisit the stellar inclinations in two open clusters, NGC 6819 and NGC 6791: our results show that the stellar inclinations in these clusters do not have privileged orientation in the sky. The variation of the asymptotic gravity offset with stellar evolution is investigated in detail. We also derive generic properties that explain under which conditions mixed modes can be observed.
Key words: stars: evolution / stars: interiors / stars: oscillations
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© ESO 2018
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.