Volume 615, July 2018
|Number of page(s)||21|
|Published online||20 July 2018|
The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey★
XXVIII. Nitrogen abundances for apparently single dwarf and giant B-type stars with small projected rotational velocities
Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast,
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hounsfield Road, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH, UK
3 UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ, UK
4 Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK
5 Anton Pannenkoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
6 Sub-department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH, UK
7 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
8 European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), Camino bajo del Castillo s/n, Urbanización Villafranca del Castillo, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28692 Madrid, Spain
9 King’s College London, Graduate School, Waterloo Bridge Wing, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK
10 Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
11 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
12 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
13 Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG, Ireland
Accepted: 28 March 2018
Previous analyses of the spectra of OB-type stars in the Magellanic Clouds have identified targets with low projected rotational velocities and relatively high nitrogen abundances; the evolutionary status of these objects remains unclear. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey obtained spectroscopy for over 800 early-type stars in 30 Doradus of which 434 stars were classified as B-type. We have estimated atmospheric parameters and nitrogen abundances using TLUSTY model atmospheres for 54 B-type targets that appear to be single, have projected rotational velocities, ve sin i ≤ 80 km s−1 and were not classified as supergiants. In addition, nitrogen abundances for 34 similar stars observed in a previous FLAMES survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud have been re-evaluated. For both samples, approximately 75–80% of the targets have nitrogen enhancements of less than 0.3 dex, consistent with them having experienced only small amounts of mixing. However, stars with low projected rotational velocities, ve sini ≤ 40 km s−1 and significant nitrogen enrichments are found in both our samples and simulations imply that these cannot all be rapidly rotating objects observed near pole-on. For example, adopting an enhancement threshold of 0.6 dex, we observed five and four stars in our VFTS and previous FLAMES survey samples, yet stellar evolution models with rotation predict only 1.25 ± 1.11 and 0.26 ± 0.51 based on our sample sizes and random stellar viewing inclinations. The excess of such objects is estimated to be 20–30% of all stars with current rotational velocities of less than 40 km s−1. This would correspond to ~2–4% of the total non-supergiant single B-type sample. Given the relatively large nitrogen enhancement adopted, these estimates constitute lower limits for stars that appear inconsistent with current grids of stellar evolutionary models. Including targets with smaller nitrogen enhancements of greater than 0.2 dex implies larger percentages of targets that are inconsistent with current evolutionary models, viz. ~70% of the stars with rotational velocities less than 40 km s−1 and ~6–8% of the total single stellar population. We consider possible explanations of which the most promising would appear to be breaking due to magnetic fields or stellar mergers with subsequent magnetic braking.
Key words: stars: early-type / stars: rotation / stars: abundances / Magellanic Clouds / galaxies: star clusters: individual: Tarantula Nebula
© ESO 2018
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.