Volume 609, January 2018
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||05 January 2018|
Direct mapping of the temperature and velocity gradients in discs
Imaging the vertical CO snow line around IM Lupi
1 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
2 UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, France (UMI 3386), and Dept. de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
3 Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA) and School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton Vic 3800, Australia
4 Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411, USA
5 Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura 763-0355, Santiago, Chile
6 Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS, UK
7 National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903-2475, USA
8 Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
9 Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85741 Garching, Germany
10 Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
11 Departamento de Astronomiía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
12 IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, 31400 Toulouse, France
Received: 15 June 2017
Accepted: 28 September 2017
Accurate measurements of the physical structure of protoplanetary discs are critical inputs for planet formation models. These constraints are traditionally established via complex modelling of continuum and line observations. Instead, we present an empirical framework to locate the CO isotopologue emitting surfaces from high spectral and spatial resolution ALMA observations. We apply this framework to the disc surrounding IM Lupi, where we report the first direct, i.e. model independent, measurements of the radial and vertical gradients of temperature and velocity in a protoplanetary disc. The measured disc structure is consistent with an irradiated self-similar disc structure, where the temperature increases and the velocity decreases towards the disc surface. We also directly map the vertical CO snow line, which is located at about one gas scale height at radii between 150 and 300 au, with a CO freeze-out temperature of 21 ± 2 K. In the outer disc (>300 au), where the gas surface density transitions from a power law to an exponential taper, the velocity rotation field becomes significantly sub-Keplerian, in agreement with the expected steeper pressure gradient. The sub-Keplerian velocities should result in a very efficient inward migration of large dust grains, explaining the lack of millimetre continuum emission outside of 300 au. The sub-Keplerian motions may also be the signature of the base of an externally irradiated photo-evaporative wind. In the same outer region, the measured CO temperature above the snow line decreases to ≈15 K because of the reduced gas density, which can result in a lower CO freeze-out temperature, photo-desorption, or deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / circumstellar matter / accretion, accretion disks / radiative transfer / stars: formation / stars: individual: IM Lupi
© ESO, 2018
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