Volume 598, February 2017
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Section||Numerical methods and codes|
|Published online||09 February 2017|
Treatment of overlapping gaseous absorption with the correlated-k method in hot Jupiter and brown dwarf atmosphere models
1 Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QL, UK
2 Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025, USA
3 NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025, USA
4 Maison de la Simulation, CEA-CNRS-INRIA-UPS-UVSQ, USR 3441, Centre d’Étude de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette, France
5 Met Office, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK
6 Univ. Lyon, ENS de Lyon, Univ. Lyon 1, CNRS, CRAL, UMR 5574, 69007 Lyon, France
Received: 15 July 2016
Accepted: 4 October 2016
The correlated-k method is frequently used to speed up radiation calculations in both one-dimensional and three-dimensional atmosphere models. An inherent difficulty with this method is how to treat overlapping absorption, i.e. absorption by more than one gas in a given spectral region. We have evaluated the applicability of three different methods in hot Jupiter and brown dwarf atmosphere models, all of which have been previously applied within models in the literature: (i) random overlap, both with and without resorting and rebinning, (ii) equivalent extinction and (iii) pre-mixing of opacities, where (i) and (ii) combine k-coefficients for different gases to obtain k-coefficients for a mixture of gases, while (iii) calculates k-coefficients for a given mixture from the corresponding mixed line-by-line opacities. We find that the random overlap method is the most accurate and flexible of these treatments, and is fast enough to be used in one-dimensional models with resorting and rebinning. In three-dimensional models such as global circulation models (GCMs) it is too slow, however, and equivalent extinction can provide a speed-up of at least a factor of three with only a minor loss of accuracy while at the same time retaining the flexibility gained by combining k-coefficients computed for each gas individually. Pre-mixed opacities are significantly less flexible, and we also find that particular care must be taken when using this method in order to to adequately resolve steep variations in composition at important chemical equilibrium boundaries. We use the random overlap method with resorting and rebinning in our one-dimensional atmosphere model and equivalent extinction in our GCM, which allows us to e.g. consistently treat the feedback of non-equilibrium chemistry on the total opacity and therefore the calculated P–T profiles in our models.
Key words: opacity / radiative transfer / methods: numerical / planets and satellites: atmospheres / brown dwarfs / planets and satellites: gaseous planets
© ESO, 2017
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