The XMM Cluster Outskirts Project (X-COP): Physical conditions of Abell 2142 up to the virial radius
1 Center for Astronomy, Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Heidelberg University, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
2 Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, ch. d’Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
3 INAF–IASF-Milano, via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy
4 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
5 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
6 CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
7 Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon, Plaza San Juan 1, Planta-2, 44001 Teruel, Spain
8 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-4575, USA
9 Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
10 Università degli studi di Milano, Dip. di Fisica, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy
11 Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 38000 Toulouse, France
12 Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, UMR8617, Université Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 121, Orsay, France
Received: 25 January 2016
Accepted: 17 June 2016
Context. Galaxy clusters are continuously growing through the accretion of matter in their outskirts. This process induces inhomogeneities in the gas density distribution (clumping) that need to be taken into account to recover the physical properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) at large radii.
Aims. We studied the thermodynamic properties in the outskirts (R > R500) of the massive galaxy cluster Abell 2142 by combining the Sunyaev Zel’dovich (SZ) effect with the X-ray signal.
Methods. We combined the SZ pressure profile measured by Planck with the XMM-Newton gas density profile to recover radial profiles of temperature, entropy, and hydrostatic mass out to 2 × R500. We used a method that is insensitive to clumping to recover the gas density, and we compared the results with traditional X-ray measurement techniques.
Results. When taking clumping into account, our joint X-SZ entropy profile is consistent with the predictions from pure gravitational collapse, whereas a significant entropy flattening is found when the effect of clumping is neglected. The hydrostatic mass profile recovered using joint X-SZ data agrees with that obtained from spectroscopic X-ray measurements and with mass reconstructions obtained through weak lensing and galaxy kinematics.
Conclusions. We found that clumping can explain the entropy flattening observed by Suzaku in the outskirts of several clusters. When using a method that is insensitive to clumping for the reconstruction of the gas density, the thermodynamic properties of Abell 2142 are compatible with the assumption that the thermal gas pressure sustains gravity and that the entropy is injected at accretion shocks, with no need to evoke more exotic physics. Our results highlight the need for X-ray observations with sufficient spatial resolution, and large collecting area, to understand the processes at work in cluster outer regions.
Key words: X-rays: galaxies: clusters / radiation mechanisms: thermal / galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium / cosmology: observations / submillimeter: general
© ESO, 2016