Hydrostatic mass profiles in X-COP galaxy clusters
INAF, Osservatorio di Astrofisica e Scienza dello Spazio, Via Pietro Gobetti 93/3, 40129
2 INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy
3 Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Università di Bologna, Via Pietro Gobetti 93/2, 40129 Bologna, Italy
4 MPE, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
5 IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, CNES, UPS, 9 av. du colonel Roche, BP44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
6 INAF, IASF, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano, Italy
7 Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08544-1001 USA
Accepted: 4 October 2018
Aims. We present the reconstruction of hydrostatic mass profiles in 13 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters that have been mapped in their X-ray and Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) signals out to R200 for the XMM-Newton Cluster Outskirts Project (X-COP).
Methods. Using profiles of the gas temperature, density, and pressure that have been spatially resolved out to median values of 0.9R500, 1.8R500, and 2.3R500, respectively, we are able to recover the hydrostatic gravitating mass profile with several methods and using different mass models.
Results. The hydrostatic masses are recovered with a relative (statistical) median error of 3% at R500 and 6% at R200. By using several different methods to solve the equation of the hydrostatic equilibrium, we evaluate some of the systematic uncertainties to be of the order of 5% at both R500 and R200. A Navarro-Frenk-White profile provides the best-fit in 9 cases out of 13; the remaining 4 cases do not show a statistically significant tension with it. The distribution of the mass concentration follows the correlations with the total mass predicted from numerical simulations with a scatter of 0.18 dex, with an intrinsic scatter on the hydrostatic masses of 0.15 dex. We compare them with the estimates of the total gravitational mass obtained through X-ray scaling relations applied to YX, gas fraction, and YSZ, and from weak lensing and galaxy dynamics techniques, and measure a substantial agreement with the results from scaling laws, from WL at both R500 and R200 (with differences below 15%), from cluster velocity dispersions. Instead, we find a significant tension with the caustic masses that tend to underestimate the hydrostatic masses by 40% at R200. We also compare these measurements with predictions from alternative models to the cold dark matter, like the emergent gravity and MOND scenarios, confirming that the latter underestimates hydrostatic masses by 40% at R1000, with a decreasing tension as the radius increases, and reaches ∼15% at R200, whereas the former reproduces M500 within 10%, but overestimates M200 by about 20%.
Conclusions. The unprecedented accuracy of these hydrostatic mass profiles out to R200 allows us to assess the level of systematic errors in the hydrostatic mass reconstruction method, to evaluate the intrinsic scatter in the NFW c − M relation, and to robustly quantify differences among different mass models, different mass proxies, and different gravity scenarios.
Key words: dark matter / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
© ESO 2019