Evolution of the stellar-merger red nova V1309 Scorpii: Spectral energy distribution analysis
1 Department of
Astrophysics, Nicolaus Copernicus
Astronomical Center, Rabiańska 8, 87-100 Toruń, Poland
2 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
Accepted: 24 May 2016
Context. One very important object for understanding the nature of red novae is V1309 Sco. Its pre-outburst observations showed that, before its red-nova eruption in 2008, it was a contact binary quickly evolving to the merger of the components. It thus provided us with a direct evidence that the red novae result from stellar mergers.
Aims. We will study the evolution of the post-merger remnant of V1309 Sco over time.
Methods. We analyse the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object and its evolution with time. From various optical and infrared surveys and observing programmes carried out with OGLE, HST, VVV, Gemini South, WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel we constructed observed SED in 2010 and 2012. Some limited data are also available for the red-nova progenitor in 2007. We analyse the data with our model of a dusty envelope surrounding a central star.
Results. Dust was present in the pre-outburst state of V1309 Sco. Its high temperature (900–1000 K) suggests that this was a freshly formed dust in a presumable mass-loss from the spiralling-in binary. Shortly after its 2008 eruption, V1309 Sco became almost completely embedded in dust. The parameters (temperature, dimensions) of the dusty envelope in 2010 and 2012 evidence that we then observed matter lost by the object during the 2008 outburst. Its mass is at least 10-3M⊙. The object remains quite luminous, although since its maximum brightness in September 2008, it has faded in luminosity by a factor of ~50 (in 2012). Far infrared data from Herschel reveal presence of a cold (~30 K) dust at a distance of a few thousand AU from the object.
Conclusions. Similarly to other red novae, V1309 Sco formed a slowly-expanding, dense, and optically-thick dusty envelope during its 2008 outburst. The main remnant is thus hidden for us. Far infrared data suggests that the object passed an episode of intense mass loss in its recent history. This conclusion could be verified by submillimeter interferometric observations.
Key words: circumstellar matter / stars: late-type / stars: individual: V1309 Scorpii / stars: mass-loss
© ESO, 2016