The XXL Survey
1 Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
2 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, 19001 Casilla, Santiago 19, Chile
3 Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
4 Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
5 HH Wills Physics Lab., Univ. of Bristol, Tyndall Ave., Bristol BS8 1TL, UK
6 Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Bat. 121, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
7 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, 20121 Milano, Italy
8 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, 06300 Nice, France
9 School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
10 Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
11 INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova, Italy
12 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, Canada
13 Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92 Onsala, Sweden
Received: 25 June 2015
Accepted: 17 December 2015
Aims. Within a cluster, gravitational effects can lead to the removal of stars from their parent galaxies and their subsequent dispersal into the intracluster medium. Gas hydrodynamical effects can additionally strip gas and dust from galaxies; both gas and stars contribute to intracluster light (ICL). The properties of the ICL can therefore help constrain the physical processes at work in clusters by serving as a fossil record of the interaction history.
Methods. The present study is designed to characterise this ICL for the first time in a ~1014 M⊙ and z ~ 0.53 cluster of galaxies from imaging and spectroscopic points of view. By applying a wavelet-based method to CFHT Megacam and WIRCAM images, we detect significant quantities of diffuse light and are able to constrain their spectral energy distributions. These sources were then spectroscopically characterised with ESO Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) spectroscopic data. MUSE data were also used to compute redshifts of 24 cluster galaxies and search for cluster substructures.
Results. An atypically large amount of ICL, equivalent in i′ to the emission from two brightest cluster galaxies, has been detected in this cluster. Part of the detected diffuse light has a very weak optical stellar component and apparently consists mainly of gas emission, while other diffuse light sources are clearly dominated by old stars. Furthermore, emission lines were detected in several places of diffuse light. Our spectral analysis shows that this emission likely originates from low-excitation parameter gas. Globally, the stellar contribution to the ICL is about 2.3 × 109 yr old even though the ICL is not currently forming a large number of stars. On the other hand, the contribution of the gas emission to the ICL in the optical is much greater than the stellar contribution in some regions, but the gas density is likely too low to form stars. These observations favour ram pressure stripping, turbulent viscous stripping, or supernovae winds as the origin of the large amount of intracluster light. Since the cluster appears not to be in a major merging phase, we conclude that ram pressure stripping is the most plausible process that generates the observed ICL sources.
Conclusions. This is one of the first times that we are able to spectroscopically study diffuse light in such a distant and massive cluster, and it demonstrates the potential of MUSE observations for such studies.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: clusters: intracluster medium
Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories under programmes ID 191.A-0268 and 60.A-9302.
The Master Catalogue is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A2
© ESO, 2016