First light of the VLT planet finder SPHERE
IV. Physical and chemical properties of the planets around HR8799⋆
1 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
2 CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
3 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
4 Millenium Nucleus “Protoplanetary Disk”, Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
5 LESIA, CNRS, UMR 8109, Observatoire de Paris, Univ. Paris Diderot, UPMC, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
6 Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, UK
7 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
8 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
9 Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
10 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
11 Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
12 CRAL, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
13 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
14 ONERA – The French Aerospace Lab BP72 – 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon Cedex, France
15 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Bd. de l’Observatoire, 06304 Nice, France
16 Anton Pannekoek Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
17 Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 11418 Stockholm, Sweden
18 Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
19 Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
20 Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, 51 chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
Received: 6 July 2015
Accepted: 13 September 2015
Context. The system of fourplanets discovered around the intermediate-mass star HR8799 offers a unique opportunity to test planet formation theories at large orbital radii and to probe the physics and chemistry at play in the atmospheres of self-luminous young (~30 Myr) planets. We recently obtained new photometry of the four planets and low-resolution (R ~ 30) spectra of HR8799 d and e with the SPHERE instrument (Paper III).
Aims. In this paper (Paper IV), we aim to use these spectra and available photometry to determine how they compare to known objects, what the planet physical properties are, and how their atmospheres work.
Methods. We compare the available spectra, photometry, and spectral energy distribution (SED) of the planets to field dwarfs and young companions. In addition, we use the extinction from corundum, silicate (enstatite and forsterite), or iron grains likely to form in the atmosphere of the planets to try to better understand empirically the peculiarity of their spectrophotometric properties. To conclude, we use three sets of atmospheric models (BT-SETTL14, Cloud-AE60, Exo-REM) to determine which ingredients are critically needed in the models to represent the SED of the objects, and to constrain their atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, M/H).
Results. We find that HR8799d and e properties are well reproduced by those of L6-L8 dusty dwarfs discovered in the field, among which some are candidate members of young nearby associations. No known object reproduces well the properties of planets b and c. Nevertheless, we find that the spectra and WISE photometry of peculiar and/or young early-T dwarfs reddened by submicron grains made of corundum, iron, enstatite, or forsterite successfully reproduce the SED of these planets. Our analysis confirms that only the Exo-REM models with thick clouds fit (within 2σ) the whole set of spectrophotometric datapoints available for HR8799 d and e for Teff = 1200 K, log g in the range 3.0−4.5, and M/H = +0.5. The models still fail to reproduce the SED of HR8799c and b. The determination of the metallicity, log g, and cloud thickness are degenerate.
Conclusions. Our empirical analysis and atmospheric modelling show that an enhanced content in dust and decreased CIA of H2 is certainly responsible for the deviation of the properties of the planet with respect to field dwarfs. The analysis suggests in addition that HR8799c and b have later spectral types than the two other planets, and therefore could both have lower masses.
Key words: instrumentation: high angular resolution / stars: individual: HR8799 / planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: detection / techniques: imaging spectroscopy / planets and satellites: fundamental parameters
© ESO, 2016