First light of the VLT planet finder SPHERE
1 Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile
2 Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile
3 Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
4 INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, Italy
5 European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
6 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6 and Université Paris Diderot – Paris 7, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
7 Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
8 CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
9 European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
10 Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR 7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Bd. de l’Observatoire, 06304 Nice, France
11 Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 993 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
12 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1640 E. Univ. Blvd., Tucson, USA
13 INAF – Astrophysical Observatory of Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli, Italy
14 Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, PO Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
15 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
16 Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales, 29 avenue de la division Leclerc, 92322 Châtillon, France
17 Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
18 Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm, Sweden
19 CRAL, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université Lyon 1, 9 avenue Charles André, 69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex, France
20 Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
21 Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
22 Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix, Switzerland
23 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
Received: 25 June 2015
Accepted: 2 November 2015
Context. The planetary system discovered around the young A-type HR 8799 provides a unique laboratory to: a) test planet formation theories; b) probe the diversity of system architectures at these separations, and c) perform comparative (exo)planetology.
Aims. We present and exploit new near-infrared images and integral-field spectra of the four gas giants surrounding HR 8799 obtained with SPHERE, the new planet finder instrument at the Very Large Telescope, during the commissioning and science verification phase of the instrument (July–December 2014). With these new data, we contribute to completing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of these bodies in the 1.0–2.5 μm range. We also provide new astrometric data, in particular for planet e, to further constrain the orbits.
Methods. We used the infrared dual-band imager and spectrograph (IRDIS) subsystem to obtain pupil-stabilized, dual-band H2H3 (1.593 μm, 1.667 μm), K1K2 (2.110 μm, 2.251 μm), and broadband J (1.245 μm) images of the four planets. IRDIS was operated in parallel with the integral field spectrograph (IFS) of SPHERE to collect low-resolution (R ~ 30), near-infrared (0.94–1.64 μm) spectra of the two innermost planets HR 8799 d and e. The data were reduced with dedicated algorithms, such as the Karhunen-Loève image projection (KLIP), to reveal the planets. We used the so-called negative planets injection technique to extract their photometry, spectra, and measure their positions. We illustrate the astrometric performance of SPHERE through sample orbital fits compatible with SPHERE and literature data.
Results. We demonstrated the ability of SPHERE to detect and characterize planets in this kind of systems, providing spectra and photometry of its components. The spectra improve upon the signal-to-noise ratio of previously obtained data and increase the spectral coverage down to the Y band. In addition, we provide the first detection of planet e in the J band. Astrometric positions for planets HR 8799 bcde are reported for the epochs of July, August, and December 2014. We measured the photometric values in J, H2H3, K1K2 bands for the four planets with a mean accuracy of 0.13 mag. We found upper limit constraints on the mass of a possible planet f of 3–7 MJup . Our new measurements are more consistent with the two inner planets d and e being in a 2d:1e or 3d:2e resonance. The spectra of HR 8799 d and e are well matched by those of L6-8 field dwarfs. However, the SEDs of these objects are redder than field L dwarfs longward of 1.6 μm.
Key words: techniques: image processing / astrometry / techniques: high angular resolution / techniques: spectroscopic / methods: data analysis
Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Chile, during the commissioning of the SPHERE instrument and during the science verification (program number 60.A-9352(A)).
Spectra of planets are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A57
© ESO, 2016