Volume 587, March 2016
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||15 February 2016|
Stratified NH and ND emission in the prestellar core 16293E in L1689N⋆
Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, 38000
2 CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
3 Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
4 LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, 75014 Paris, France
5 California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
6 Université de Toulouse; UPS-OMP; Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie (IRAP), 31028 Toulouse, France
7 CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4, France
8 LOMC-UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 1123, 76063 Le Havre Cedex, France
Received: 12 March 2015
Accepted: 6 December 2015
Context. High degrees of deuterium fractionation are commonly found in cold prestellar cores and in the envelopes around young protostars. As it brings strong constraints to chemical models, deuterium chemistry is often used to infer core history or molecule formation pathways. Whereas a large number of observations are available regarding interstellar deuterated stable molecules, relatively little is known about the deuteration of hydride radicals, as their fundamental rotational transitions are at high frequencies where the atmosphere is mostly opaque.
Aims. Nitrogen hydride radicals are important species in nitrogen chemistry, as they are thought to be related to ammonia formation. Observations have shown that ammonia is strongly deuterated, with [NH2D]/[NH3] ~ 10%. Models predict similarly high [ND]/[NH] ratios, but so far only one observational determination of this ratio is available, towards the envelope of the protostar IRAS16293-2422. To test model predictions, we aim here to determine [ND]/[NH] in a dense, starless core.
Methods. We observed NH and ND in 16293E with the HIFI spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the CHESS guaranteed time key programme, and derived the abundances of these two species using a non local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer model.
Results. Both NH and ND are detected in the source, with ND in emission and NH in absorption against the continuum that arises from the cold dust emission. Our model shows, however, that the ND emission and the NH absorption originate from different layers in the cloud, as further evidenced by their different velocities. In the central region of the core, we can set a lower limit to the [ND]/[NH] ratio of ≳2%. This estimate is consistent with recent pure gas-phase models of nitrogen chemistry.
Key words: astrochemistry / radiative transfer / ISM: molecules / ISM: abundances
© ESO, 2016
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