Volume 586, February 2016
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Published online||19 January 2016|
Unbeamed tidal disruption events at hard X-rays
ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève Chemin d’ Ecogia 16 1290 Versoix Switzerland
Received: 24 May 2015
Accepted: 22 October 2015
Context. Owing to their thermal emission, tidal disruption events (TDEs) were regularly detected in the soft X-rays and sometimes in the optical. Only a few TDEs have been detected at hard X-rays: two are high redshift beamed events, one of which occurred at the core of a nearby galaxy, and the most recent one is of a different nature, involving a compact object in the Milky Way.
Aims. The aims of this work are to obtain a first sample of hard X-ray-selected unbeamed TDEs, to determine their frequency and to probe whether TDEs usually or exceptionally emit at hard X-ray energies.
Methods. We performed extensive searches for hard X-ray flares at positions in over 53 000 galaxies, up to a distance of 100 Mpc in the Swift/BAT archive. Light curves were extracted and parametrized. The quiescent hard X-ray emission was used to exclude persistently active galactic nuclei. Significant flares from non-active galaxies were derived and checked for possible contamination.
Results. We found a sample of nine TDE candidates, which translates into a rate of 2 × 10-5 galaxy-1 yr-1 above the BAT detection limit. This rate is consistent with those observed by XMM-Newton at soft X-rays and in the optical from SDSS observations, and is as expected from simulations. We conclude that hard X-ray emission should be ubiquitous in un-beamed TDEs and that electrons should be accelerated in their accretion flow.
Key words: accretion, accretion disks / black hole physics / galaxies: nuclei
© ESO, 2016
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