Volume 585, January 2016
|Number of page(s)||13|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||17 December 2015|
Mid-IR spectra of pre-main sequence Herbig stars: An explanation for the non-detections of water lines
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV
2 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
3 St. Andrews University, School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews KY16 9SS, UK
4 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
5 Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physisk, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
6 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
7 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, via della Scienza 5, 09047 Selargius, Italy
8 University of Vienna, Department of Astronomy, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna, Austria
Received: 19 June 2015
Accepted: 23 October 2015
Context. The mid-IR detection rate of water lines in disks around Herbig stars disks is about 5%, while it is around 50% for disks around T Tauri stars. The reason for this is still unclear.
Aims. In this study, we want to find an explanation for the different detection rates between low mass and high mass pre-main-sequence stars in the mid-IR regime.
Methods. We ran disk models with stellar parameters adjusted to spectral types B9 through M2, using the radiation thermo-chemical disk modelling code ProDiMo. We explored also a small parameter space around a standard disk model, considering dust-to-gas mass ratio, disk gas mass, mixing coefficient for dust settling, flaring index, dust maximum size, and size power law distribution index. We produced convolved spectra at the resolution of Spitzer, IRS, JWST MIRI, and VLT VISIR spectrographs. We applied random noise derived from typical Spitzer spectra for a direct comparison with observations.
Results. The strength of the mid-IR water lines correlates directly with the luminosity of the central star. The models show that it is possible to suppress the water emission; however, current observations are not sensitive enough to detect mid-IR lines in disks for most of the explored parameters. The presence of noise in the spectra, combined with the high continuum flux (noise level is proportional to the continuum flux), is the most likely explanation for the non-detections towards Herbig stars.
Conclusions. Mid-IR spectra with resolution higher than 20 000 are needed to investigate water in protoplanetary disks. Intrinsic differences in disk structure, such as inner gaps, gas-to-dust ratio, dust size and distribution, and inner disk scale height, between Herbig and T Tauri star disks are able to explain a lower water detection rate in disks around Herbig stars.
Key words: protoplanetary disks / line: formation / stars: pre-main sequence / circumstellar matter
© ESO, 2015
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.