Volume 580, August 2015
|Number of page(s)||30|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||21 August 2015|
1 The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
2 Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN, UK
3 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padua, Italy
4 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA, UK
5 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching, Germany
6 Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117, USA
7 Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530, USA
8 Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
9 Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
10 ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
Received: 11 July 2014
Accepted: 9 January 2015
We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy as well as modelling of the lightcurves of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh. Our extensive dataset, for which we present the observations obtained after day 100, spans two years, and complemented with Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) data, we use it to build an optical-to-MIR bolometric lightcurve between days 3 and 732. To model the bolometric lightcurve before day 400 we use a grid of hydrodynamical SN models, which allows us to determine the errors in the derived quantities, and a bolometric correction determined with steady-state non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modelling. Using this method we find a helium core mass of 3.1+0.7-0.4 M⊙ for SN 2011dh, consistent within error bars with previous results obtained using the bolometric lightcurve before day 80. We compute bolometric and broad-band lightcurves between days 100 and 500 from spectral steady-state NLTE models, presented and discussed in a companion paper. The preferred 12 M⊙ (initial mass) model, previously found to agree well with the observed spectra, shows a good overall agreement with the observed lightcurves, although some discrepancies exist. Time-dependent NLTE modelling shows that after day ~600 a steady-state assumption is no longer valid. The radioactive energy deposition in this phase is likely dominated by the positrons emitted in the decay of 56Co, but seems insufficient to reproduce the lightcurves, and what energy source is dominating the emitted flux is unclear. We find an excess in the K and the MIR bands developing between days 100 and 250, during which an increase in the optical decline rate is also observed. A local origin of the excess is suggested by the depth of the He i 20 581 Å absorption. Steady-state NLTE models with a modest dust opacity in the core (τ = 0.44), turned on during this period, reproduce the observed behaviour, but an additional excess in the Spitzer 4.5 μm band remains. Carbon-monoxide (CO) first-overtone band emission is detected at day 206, and possibly at day 89, and assuming the additional excess to bedominated by CO fundamental band emission, we find fundamental to first-overtone band ratios considerably higher than observed in SN 1987A. The profiles of the [O i] 6300 Å and Mg i] 4571 Å lines show a remarkable similarity, suggesting that these lines originate from a common nuclear burning zone (O/Ne/Mg), and using small scale fluctuations in the line profiles we estimate a filling factor of ≲0.07 for the emitting material. This paper concludes our extensive observational and modelling work on SN 2011dh. The results from hydrodynamical modelling, steady-state NLTE modelling, and stellar evolutionary progenitor analysis are all consistent, and suggest an initial mass of ~12 M⊙ for the progenitor.
Key words: supernovae: individual: SN 2008ax / supernovae: individual: SN 2011dh / galaxies: individual: M 51 / supernovae: general / supernovae: individual: SN 1993J
Figures 7–9, 17, Tables 4–9, and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
The photometric tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A142
© ESO, 2015
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