Volume 562, February 2014
|Number of page(s)||35|
|Section||Stellar structure and evolution|
|Published online||03 February 2014|
1 The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
2 Astrophysics Research Center, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN, UK
3 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio n. 5, 35122 Padua, Italy
4 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching, Germany
5 Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Facultat de Ciències, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
6 Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 Chiba, Japan
7 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello, 16 80131 Napoli, Italy
8 Fundación Galileo Galilei-INAF, Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Rambla José Ana Fernández Pérez 7, 38712 Breña Baja TF, Spain
9 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, via Santa Sofia, 95123 Catania, Italy
10 Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 252, Santiago, Chile
11 Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117, USA
12 Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, 21500 Piikkiö, Finland
13 Isaac Newton Group, Apartado 321, 38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Spain
14 Observatorio Montcabrer, C Jaume Balmes 24, 08348 Cabrils, Spain
15 Observatorio de Cántabria, Ctra. de Rocamundo s/n, Valderredible, Cantabria, Spain
Received: 6 May 2013
Accepted: 13 October 2013
We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy of the Type IIb supernova (SN) 2011dh for the first 100 days. We complement our extensive dataset with Swift ultra-violet (UV) and Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) data to build a UV to MIR bolometric lightcurve using both photometric and spectroscopic data. Hydrodynamical modelling of the SN based on this bolometric lightcurve have been presented in Bersten et al. (2012, ApJ, 757, 31). We find that the absorption minimum for the hydrogen lines is never seen below ~11 000 km s-1 but approaches this value as the lines get weaker. This suggests that the interface between the helium core and hydrogen rich envelope is located near this velocity in agreement with the Bersten et al. (2012) He4R270 ejecta model. Spectral modelling of the hydrogen lines using this ejecta model supports the conclusion and we find a hydrogen mass of 0.01–0.04 M⊙ to be consistent with the observed spectral evolution. We estimate that the photosphere reaches the helium core at 5–7 days whereas the helium lines appear between ~10 and ~15 days, close to the photosphere and then move outward in velocity until ~40 days. This suggests that increasing non-thermal excitation due to decreasing optical depth for the γ-rays is driving the early evolution of these lines. The Spitzer 4.5 μm band shows a significant flux excess, which we attribute to CO fundamental band emission or a thermal dust echo although further work using late time data is needed. Thedistance and in particular the extinction, where we use spectral modelling to put further constraints, is discussed in some detail as well as the sensitivity of the hydrodynamical modelling to errors in these quantities. We also provide and discuss pre- and post-explosion observations of the SN site which shows a reduction by ~75 percent in flux at the position of the yellow supergiant coincident with SN 2011dh. The B, V and r band decline rates of 0.0073, 0.0090 and 0.0053 mag day-1 respectively are consistent with the remaining flux being emitted by the SN. Hence we find that the star was indeed the progenitor of SN 2011dh as previously suggested by Maund et al. (2011, ApJ, 739, L37) and which is also consistent with the results from the hydrodynamical modelling.
Key words: supernovae: general / supernovae: individual: SN 2011dh / galaxies: clusters: individual: M51
Figures 2, 3, Tables 3–10, and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
The photometric tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/562/A17
© ESO, 2014
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