Volume 578, June 2015
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Published online||05 June 2015|
Instituto de Astronomía Teórica y Experimental, IATE, CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba, Argentina
Received: 3 November 2014
Accepted: 31 March 2015
Aims. The purpose of this work is to perform a statistical analysis of the location of compact groups in the Universe from observational and semi-analytical points of view.
Methods. We used the velocity-filtered compact group sample extracted from the Two Micron All Sky Survey for our analysis. We also used a new sample of galaxy groups identified in the 2M++ galaxy redshift catalogue as tracers of the large-scale structure. We defined a procedure to search in redshift space for compact groups that can be considered embedded in other overdense systems and applied this criterion to several possible combinations of different compact and galaxy group subsamples. We also performed similar analyses for simulated compact and galaxy groups identified in a 2M++ mock galaxy catalogue constructed from the Millennium Run Simulation I plus a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation.
Results. We observed that only ~27% of the compact groups can be considered to be embedded in larger overdense systems, that is, most of the compact groups are more likely to be isolated systems. The embedded compact groups show statistically smaller sizes and brighter surface brightnesses than non-embedded systems. No evidence was found that embedded compact groups are more likely to inhabit galaxy groups with a given virial mass or with a particular dynamical state. We found very similar results when the analysis was performed using mock compact and galaxy groups. Based on the semi-analytical studies, we predict that 70% of the embedded compact groups probably are 3D physically dense systems. Finally, real space information allowed us to reveal the bimodal behaviour of the distribution of 3D minimum distances between compact and galaxy groups.
Conclusions. The location of compact groups should be carefully taken into account when comparing properties of galaxies in environments that are a priori different.
Key words: methods: numerical / methods: statistical / galaxies: groups: general
Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Full Tables B.1 and B.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A61
© ESO, 2015
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