The X-CLASS−redMaPPer galaxy cluster comparison
I. Identification procedures
1 Service d’astrophysique, IRFU, CEA Saclay, France
2 Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching bei München, Germany
3 Service d’électronique, des détecteurs et d’informatique, IRFU, CEA Saclay, France
4 KIPAC, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park CA 94025, USA
Received: 11 March 2014
Accepted: 29 July 2014
Context. This paper is the first in a series undertaking a comprehensive correlation analysis between optically selected and X-ray-selected cluster catalogues. The rationale of the project is to develop a holistic picture of galaxy clusters utilising optical and X-ray-cluster-selected catalogues with well-understood selection functions.
Aims. Unlike most of the X-ray/optical cluster correlations to date, the present paper focuses on the non-matching objects in either waveband. We investigate how the differences observed between the optical and X-ray catalogues may stem from (1) a shortcoming of the detection algorithms; (2) dispersion in the X-ray/optical scaling relations; or (3) substantial intrinsic differences between the cluster populations probed in the X-ray and optical bands. The aim is to inventory and elucidate these effects in order to account for selection biases in the further determination of X-ray/optical cluster scaling relations.
Methods. We correlated the X-CLASS serendipitous cluster catalogue extracted from the XMM archive with the redMaPPer optical cluster catalogue derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (DR8). We performed a detailed and, in large part, interactive analysis of the matching output from the correlation. The overlap between the two catalogues has been accurately determined and possible cluster positional errors were manually recovered. The final samples comprise 270 and 355 redMaPPer and X-CLASS clusters, respectively. X-ray cluster matching rates were analysed as a function of optical richness. In the second step, the redMaPPer clusters were correlated with the entire X-ray catalogue, containing point and uncharacterised sources (down to a few 10-15 erg s-1 cm-2 in the [0.5−2] keV band). A stacking analysis was performed for the remaining undetected optical clusters.
Results. We find that all rich (λ ≥ 80) clusters are detected in X-rays out to z = 0.6. Below this redshift, the richness threshold for X-ray detection steadily decreases with redshift. Likewise, all X-ray bright clusters are detected by redMaPPer. After correcting for obvious pipeline shortcomings (about 10% of the cases both in optical and X-ray), ~50% of the redMaPPer (down to a richness of 20) are found to coincide with an X-CLASS cluster; when considering X-ray sources of any type, this fraction increases to ~80%; for the remaining objects, the stacking analysis finds a weak signal within 0.5 Mpc around the cluster optical centres. The fraction of clusters totally dominated by AGN-type emission appears to be a few percent. Conversely, ~40% of the X-CLASS clusters are identified with a redMaPPer (down to a richness of 20) − part of the non-matches being due to the X-CLASS sample extending further out than redMaPPer (z< 1.5 vs. z< 0.6), but extending the correlation down to a richness of 5 raises the matching rate to ~65%.
Conclusions. This state-of-the-art study involving two well-validated cluster catalogues has shown itself to be complex, and it points to a number of issues inherent to blind cross-matching, owing both to pipeline shortcomings and cluster peculiar properties. These can only been accounted for after a manual check. The combined X-ray and optical scaling relations will be presented in a subsequent article.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: general / catalogs / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / cosmology: observations
© ESO, 2014