Volume 567, July 2014
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||05 August 2014|
Physical and orbital properties of β Pictoris b⋆
1 Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
2 CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
3 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
4 LESIA, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Univ. Paris Diderot, UPMC, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon, France
5 Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, Québec, H3A 2T8, Canada
6 SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
7 CRAL, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d’Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France
Received: 21 April 2014
Accepted: 13 July 2014
The intermediate-mass star β Pictoris is known to be surrounded by a structured edge-on debris disk within which a gas giant planet was discovered orbiting at 8−10 AU. The physical properties of β Pic b were previously inferred from broad- and narrow-band 0.9−4.8 μm photometry. We used commissioning data of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) to obtain new astrometry and a low-resolution (R ~ 35−39) J-band (1.12−1.35 μm) spectrum of the planet. We find that the planet has passed the quadrature. We constrain its semi-major axis to ≤10 AU (90% prob.) with a peak at 8.9+0.4-0.6 AU. The joint fit of the planet astrometry and the most recent radial velocity measurements of the star yields a planet dynamical mass lower than 20 MJup (≥96% prob.). The extracted spectrum of β Pic b is similar to those of young L1-1.5+1 dwarfs. We used the spectral type estimate to revise the planet luminosity to log (L/L⊙) = −3.90 ± 0.07. The 0.9−4.8 μm photometry and spectrum are reproduced for Teff = 1650 ± 150 K and a log g ≤ 4.7 dex by 12 grids of PHOENIX-based and LESIA atmospheric models. For the most recent system age estimate (21 ± 4 Myr), the bolometric luminosity and the constraints on the dynamical mass of β Pic b are only reproduced by warm- and hot-start tracks with initial entropies Si> 10.5 kB/baryon. These initial conditions may result from an inefficient accretion shock and/or a planetesimal density at formation higher than in the classical core-accretion model. Considering a younger age for the system or a conservative formation time for β Pic b does not change these conclusions.
Key words: techniques: photometric / techniques: spectroscopic / planetary systems / stars: individual:βPic
Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2014
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