Volume 564, April 2014
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||15 April 2014|
European VLBI Network observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in clusters of massive young stellar objects⋆
1 Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun, Poland
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
2 Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
3 Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
Received: 9 September 2013
Accepted: 31 January 2014
Context. Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are associated with high-mass star-forming regions (HMSFRs) and often have mid-infrared (MIR) counterparts characterized by extended emission at 4.5 μm, which likely traces outflows from massive young stellar objects (MYSOs).
Aims. Our objectives are to determine the milliarcsecond (mas) morphology of the maser emission and to examine if it comes from one or several candidate MIR counterparts in the clusters of MYSOs.
Methods. The European VLBI Network (EVN) was used to image the 6.7 GHz maser line with ~2.́1 field of view toward 14 maser sites from the Torun catalog. Quasi-simultaneous observations were carried out with the Torun 32 m telescope.
Results. We obtained maps with mas angular resolution that showed diversity of methanol emission morphology: a linear distribution (e.g., G37.753−00.189), a ring-like (G40.425+00.700), and a complex one (e.g., G45.467+00.053). The maser emission is usually associated with the strongest MIR counterpart in the clusters; no maser emission was detected from other MIR sources in the fields of view of 2.́1 in diameter. The maser source luminosity seems to correlate with the total luminosity of the central MYSO. Although the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique resolves a significant part of the maser emission, the morphology is still well determined. This indicates that the majority of maser components have compact cores.
Key words: stars: formation / ISM: molecules / masers / instrumentation: high angular resolution
Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2014
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