Volume 561, January 2014
|Number of page(s)||14|
|Published online||10 January 2014|
Variation in the dust emissivity index across M 33 with Herschel and Spitzer (HerM 33es)
1 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
2 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux and CNRS UMR 5804, 33271 Floirac, France
3 Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Athens, Greece
4 Instituto Radioastronomia Milimetrica, 18012 Granada, Spain
5 Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388 Marseille, France
6 Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Av. de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris, France
7 Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
8 Astron. Dept., King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80203, 21589 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
9 Department Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
10 IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 St. Martin d’Hères, France
11 Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
12 I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln, Germany
Received: 8 March 2013
Accepted: 14 October 2013
We study the wavelength dependence of the dust emission as a function of position and environment across the disk of M 33 using Spitzer and Herschel photometric data. M 33 is a Local Group spiral with slightly subsolar metallicity, which makes it an ideal stepping-stone to less regular and lower-metallicity objects such as dwarf galaxies and, probably, young-universe objects. Expressing the emissivity of the dust as a power law, the power-law exponent (β) was estimated from two independent approaches designed to properly treat the degeneracy between β and the dust temperature (T). Both β and T are higher in the inner than in the outer disk, contrary to reported β − T anti-correlations found in other sources. In the cold + warm dust model, the warm component and the ionized gas (Hα) have a very similar distribution across the galaxy, demonstrating that the model separates the components in an appropriate way. Both cold- and warm-dust column densities are high in star-forming regions and reach their maxima toward the giant star-forming complexes NGC 604 and NGC 595. β declines from close to 2 in the center to about 1.3 in the outer disk. β is positively correlated with star formation and with the molecular gas column, as traced by the Hα and CO emission. The lower dust-emissivity index in the outer parts of M 33 is most likely related to the reduced metallicity (different grain composition) and possibly to a different size distribution. It is not due to the decrease in stellar radiation field or temperature in a simple way because the far-infrared-bright regions in the outer disk also have a low β. Like most spirals, M 33 has a (decreasing) radial gradient in star formation and molecular-to-atomic gas ratio such that the regions bright in Hα or CO tend to trace the inner disk, which makes it difficult to distinguish between their effects on the dust. The assumption of a constant emissivity index β is obviously not appropriate.
Key words: galaxies: individual: M 33 / galaxies: ISM / galaxies: star formation / dust, extinction
© ESO, 2014
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.