Spatially resolving the dust properties and submillimetre excess in M 33
Dept. Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada,
2 Instituto Universitario Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
4 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, 9000 Gent, Belgium
5 Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
6 Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
7 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea S/N, 38205 La Laguna, Spain
8 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Spain
9 Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
10 Instituto Radioastronomía Milimétrica, Av. Divina Pastora 7, Núcleo Central, 18012 Granada, Spain
11 Unidad de Astronomía, Fac. Cs. Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda. U. de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta, Chile
12 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Observatory of Athens, P. Penteli, 15236 Athens, Greece
Accepted: 13 January 2018
Context. The relative abundance of the dust grain types in the interstellar medium is directly linked to physical quantities that trace the evolution of galaxies. Because of the poor spatial resolution of the infrared and submillimetre data, we are able to study the dependence of the resolved infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) across regions of the interstellar medium (ISM) with different physical properties in just a few objects.
Aims. We aim to study the dust properties of the whole disc of M 33 at spatial scales of ~170 pc. This analysis allows us to infer how the relative dust grain abundance changes with the conditions of the ISM, study the existence of a submillimetre excess and look for trends of the gas-to-dust mass ratio (GDR) with other physical properties of the galaxy.
Methods. For each pixel in the disc of M 33 we have fitted the infrared SED using a physically motivated dust model that assumes an emissivity index β close to two. We applied a Bayesian statistical method to fit the individual SEDs and derived the best output values from the study of the probability density function of each parameter. We derived the relative amount of the different dust grains in the model, the total dust mass, and the strength of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) heating the dust at each spatial location.
Results. The relative abundance of very small grains tends to increase, and for big grains to decrease, at high values of Hα luminosity. This shows that the dust grains are modified inside the star-forming regions, in agreement with a theoretical framework of dust evolution under different physical conditions. The radial dependence of the GDR is consistent with the shallow metallicity gradient observed in this galaxy. The strength of the ISRF derived in our model correlates with the star formation rate in the galaxy in a pixel by pixel basis. Although this is expected, it is the first time that a correlation between the two quantities has been reported. We have produced a map of submillimetre excess in the 500 μm SPIRE band for the disc of M 33. The excess can be as high as 50% and increases at large galactocentric distances. We further studied the relation of the excess with other physical properties of the galaxy and find that the excess is prominent in zones of diffuse ISM outside the main star-forming regions, where the molecular gas and dust surface density are low.
Key words: galaxies: ISM / galaxies: individual: M 33 / dust, extinction / H II regions
© ESO 2018