ALMA imaging of the CO snowline of the HD 163296 disk with DCO+⋆
1 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
2 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
3 Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), PO Box 23-141, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan
4 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
5 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, 181-8588 Tokyo, Japan
6 NAOJ Chile Observatory
7 European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
8 Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
9 National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO), 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
10 INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze, Italy
Received: 29 March 2013
Accepted: 11 July 2013
Context. The high spatial resolution and line sensitivity of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) opens the possibility of resolving emission from molecules in large samples of circumstellar disks. With an understanding of the conditions under which these molecules can have high abundance, they can be used as direct tracers of distinct physical regions. In particular, DCO+ is expected to have an enhanced abundance within a few Kelvin of the CO freezeout temperature of 19 K, making it a useful probe of the cold disk midplane.
Aims. We aim to use line emission from DCO+ to directly resolve the CO “snowline” – the region at which the gas-phase CO abundance drops due to freezeout – and determine the temperature boundaries of the region of DCO+ emission in the HD 163296 disk. This will serve as a test of deuteration models based on enhanced formation of the parent molecule H2D+ and a direct probe of midplane disk structure and ionization.
Methods. We compare ALMA line observations of HD 163296 to a grid of models based on the best fit physical model of Qi et al. (2011, ApJ, 740, 84). We vary the upper- and lower-limit temperatures of the region in which DCO+ is present as well as the abundance of DCO+ in order to fit channel maps of the DCO+J = 5–4 line. To determine the abundance enhancement compared to the general interstellar medium, we carry out similar fitting to HCO+J = 4–3 and H13CO+J = 4–3 observations.
Results. ALMA images show centrally peaked extended emission from HCO+ and H13CO+. DCO+ emission lies in a resolved ring from ~110 to 160 AU. The outer radius approximately corresponds to the size of the CO snowline as measured by previous lower resolution observations of CO lines in this disk. The ALMA DCO+ data now resolve and image the CO snowline directly.
Conclusions. In the best fitting models, HCO+ exists in a region extending from the 19 K isotherm to the photodissociation layer with an abundance of 3 × 10-10 relative to H2. DCO+ exists within the 19–21 K region of the disk with an abundance ratio [DCO+]/[HCO+] = 0.3. This represents a factor of 104 enhancement of the DCO+ abundance within this narrow region of the HD 163296 disk. Such a high enhancement has only previously been seen in prestellar cores. The inferred abundances provide a lower limit to the ionization fraction in the midplane of the cold outer disk (≳4 × 10-10), and suggest the utility of DCO+ as a tracer of its parent molecule H2D+.
Key words: stars: pre-main sequence / protoplanetary disks / submillimeter: stars / stars: individual: HD 163296
Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2013