Outflow forces of low-mass embedded objects in Ophiuchus: a quantitative comparison of analysis methods⋆
1 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden The Netherlands,
2 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042, USA
4 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
Received: 11 November 2012
Accepted: 27 May 2013
Context. The outflow force of molecular bipolar outflows is a key parameter in theories of young stellar feedback on their surroundings. The focus of many outflow studies is the correlation between the outflow force, bolometric luminosity, and envelope mass. However, it is difficult to combine the results of different studies in large evolutionary plots over many orders of magnitude due to the range of data quality, analysis methods, and corrections for observational effects, such as opacity and inclination.
Aims. We aim to determine the outflow force for a sample of low-luminosity embedded sources. We quantify the influence of the analysis method and the assumptions entering the calculation of the outflow force.
Methods. We used the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to map 12CO J = 3–2 over 2′× 2′ regions around 16 Class I sources of a well-defined sample in Ophiuchus at 15″ resolution. The outflow force was then calculated using seven different methods differing, e.g., in the use of intensity-weighted emission and correction factors for inclination. Two well studied outflows (HH 46 and NGC1 333 IRAS4A) are added to the sample and included in the comparison.
Results. The results from the analysis methods differ from each other by up to a factor of 6, whereas observational properties and choices in the analysis procedure affect the outflow force by up to a factor of 4. Subtraction of cloud emission and integrating over the remaining profile increases the outflow force at most by a factor of 4 compared to line wing integration. For the sample of Class I objects, bipolar outflows are detected around 13 sources including 5 new detections, where the three nondetections are confused by nearby outflows from other sources. New outflow structures without a clear powering source are discovered at the corners of some of the maps.
Conclusions. When combining outflow forces from different studies, a scatter by up to a factor of 5 can be expected. Although the true outflow force remains unknown, the separation method (separate calculation of dynamical time and momentum) is least affected by the uncertain observational parameters. The correlations between outflow force, bolometric luminosity, and envelope mass are further confirmed down to low-luminosity sources.
Key words: ISM: jets and outflows / ISM: molecules / stars: protostars / stars: low-mass / circumstellar matter / submillimeter: ISM
Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2013