Volume 553, May 2013
|Number of page(s)||4|
|Published online||22 May 2013|
The influence of magnetic fields, turbulence, and UV radiation on the formation of supermassive black holes
Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: 27 March 2013
Accepted: 17 April 2013
Context. The seeds of the supermassive black holes with masses of ~109M⊙ observed already at z ~ 6 may have formed through the direct collapse of primordial gas in Tvir ≳ 104 K halos, whereby the gas must stay hot (~104 K) in order to avoid fragmentation.
Aims. The interplay between magnetic fields, turbulence, and a UV radiation background during the gravitational collapse of primordial gas in a halo is explored; in particular, the possibilities for avoiding fragmentation are examined.
Methods. Using an analytical one-zone model, the evolution of a cloud of primordial gas is followed from its initial cosmic expansion through turnaround, virialization, and collapse up to a density of 107 cm-3.
Results. It was found that in halos with no significant turbulence, the critical UV background intensity (J21crit) for keeping the gas hot is lower by a factor ~10 for an initial comoving magnetic field B0 ~ 2 nG than for the zero-field case, and even lower for stronger fields. In turbulent halos, J21crit is found to be a factor ~10 lower than for the zero-field-zero-turbulence case, and the stronger the turbulence (more massive halo and/or stronger turbulent heating), the lower J21crit.
Conclusions. The reduction in J21crit is particularly important, since it exponentially increases the number of halos exposed to a supercritical radiation background.
Key words: early Universe / black hole physics / magnetic fields / turbulence
© ESO, 2013
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