Volume 551, March 2013
|Number of page(s)||22|
|Published online||01 March 2013|
1 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching, Germany
2 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
3 Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
4 Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, University of California, CA 92697, Irvine, USA
5 Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, Italy
6 INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
7 ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
8 Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MA 02138, Cambridge, USA
9 Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
10 School of Physics and Astronomy, The Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv, Israel
11 Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK
12 Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
13 Dipartimento di Astronomia, Università di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna, Italy
14 Astrophysics Branch, NASA – Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, CA 94035, Moffett Field, USA
15 Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, EH9 3 HJ Edinburgh, UK
16 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, BC V6T 1Z1, Vancouver, Canada
17 Herschel Science Centre, ESAC, ESA, PO Box 78, Villanueva de la Canãda, 28691 Madrid, Spain
18 California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., CA 91125, Pasadena, USA
Received: 6 December 2012
Accepted: 16 January 2013
Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8–500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7–10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6–9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10–20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of SED templates. Finally, the library is used to classify 24 μm detected sources in PEP GOODS fields on the basis of AGN content, L(60)/L(100) color and L(160)/L(1.6) luminosity ratio. AGN appear to be distributed in the stellar mass (M∗) vs. star formation rate (SFR) space along with all other galaxies, regardless of the amount of infrared luminosity they are powering, with the tendency to lie on the high SFR side of the “main sequence”. The incidence of warmer star-forming sources grows for objects with higher specific star formation rates (sSFR), and they tend to populate the “off-sequence” region of the M∗ − SFR − z space.
Key words: infrared: galaxies / galaxies: statistics / galaxies: star formation / galaxies: active / galaxies: evolution
Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Galaxy SED templates are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A100
© ESO, 2013
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