Volume 551, March 2013
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Section||Planets and planetary systems|
|Published online||05 March 2013|
The D/H ratio in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune from Herschel-PACS observations⋆
Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik,
2 LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
3 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
4 ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
5 Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
6 Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, UK
7 University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
8 Max-Planck-Institut for Solar System Research, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany
9 Univ. Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, 33270, Floirac, France
10 CNRS, LAB, UMR 5804, 33270, Floirac, France
Accepted: 23 January 2013
Herschel-PACS measurements of the rotational R(0) and R(1) HD lines in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune are analyzed to derive a D/H ratio with improved precision for the two planets. The derivation of the D/H ratio also includes previous measurements of the R(2) line with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The available spectroscopic line information of the three rotational transitions is discussed and applied in the radiative transfer calculations. The best simultaneous fit of all three lines requires only a minor departure from the Spitzer temperature profile of Uranus and a departure limited to 2K from the Voyager temperature profile of Neptune (each time around the tropopause). The resulting and remarkably similar D/H ratios for Uranus and Neptune are found to be (4.4 ± 0.4) × 10-5 and (4.1 ± 0.4) × 10-5, respectively. Although the deuterium enrichment in the two atmospheres compared to the protosolar value is confirmed, it is found to be lower compared to previous analyses. Using interior models from the literature and assuming that complete mixing of the atmosphere and interior occured during the planets’ history, we derive a D/H in protoplanetary ices between (5.75–7.0) × 10-5 for Uranus and between (5.1–7.7) × 10-5 for Neptune. Conversely, adopting a cometary D/H for the protoplanetary ices between (15–30) × 10-5, we constrain the interior models of the two planets to have an ice mass fraction of 14–32%, i.e., the two planets are rock-dominated.
Key words: planets and satellites: interiors / planets and satellites: individual: Uranus / planets and satellites: atmospheres / planets and satellites: individual: Neptune
© ESO, 2013
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