Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422⋆
The high-resolution ALMA and SMA view
1 Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark
2 Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
3 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
4 Max-Planck Institute für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany
Received: 26 October 2012
Accepted: 28 November 2012
Context. Measuring the water deuterium fractionation in the inner warm regions of low-mass protostars has so far been hampered by poor angular resolution obtainable with single-dish ground- and space-based telescopes. Observations of water isotopologues using (sub)millimeter wavelength interferometers have the potential to shed light on this matter.
Aims. To measure the water deuterium fractionation in the warm gas of the deeply-embedded protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422.
Methods. Observations toward IRAS 16293-2422 of the 53,2 − 44,1 transition of H218O at 692.07914 GHz from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) as well as the 31,3 − 22,0 of H218O at 203.40752 GHz and the 31,2 − 22,1 transition of HDO at 225.89672 GHz from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) are presented.
Results. The 692 GHz H218O line is seen toward both components of the binary protostar. Toward one of the components, “source B”, the line is seen in absorption toward the continuum, slightly red-shifted from the systemic velocity, whereas emission is seen off-source at the systemic velocity. Toward the other component, “source A”, the two HDO and H218O lines are detected as well with the SMA. From the H218O transitions the excitation temperature is estimated at 124 ± 12 K. The calculated HDO/H2O ratio is (9.2 ± 2.6) × 10-4 – significantly lower than previous estimates in the warm gas close to the source. It is also lower by a factor of ~5 than the ratio deduced in the outer envelope.
Conclusions. Our observations reveal the physical and chemical structure of water vapor close to the protostars on solar-system scales. The red-shifted absorption detected toward source B is indicative of infall. The excitation temperature is consistent with the picture of water ice evaporation close to the protostar. The low HDO/H2O ratio deduced here suggests that the differences between the inner regions of the protostars and the Earth’s oceans and comets are smaller than previously thought.
Key words: astrochemistry / stars: formation / protoplanetary disks / ISM: abundances / ISM: general
Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2012