1 Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls University, Sand 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
2 Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue de l’Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France
3 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Received: 3 May 2012
Accepted: 11 October 2012
Context. Spectral analyses of hot, compact stars with non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmosphere techniques allow the precise determination of photospheric parameters such as the effective temperature (Teff), the surface gravity (log g), and the chemical composition. The derived photospheric metal abundances are crucial constraints for stellar evolutionary theory.
Aims. Previous spectral analyses of the exciting star of the nebula A 35, BD−22°3467, were based on He+C+N+O+Si+Fe models only. For our analysis, we use state-of-the-art fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres that consider opacities of 23 elements from hydrogen to nickel. We aim to identify all observed lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of BD−22°3467 and to determine the abundances of the respective species precisely.
Methods. For the analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) far-ultraviolet (FUSE) and UV (HST/STIS) observations, we combined stellar-atmosphere models and interstellar line-absorption models to fully reproduce the entire observed UV spectrum.
Results. The best agreement with the UV observation of BD−22°3467 is achieved at Teff = 80 ± 10 kK and log g = 7.2 ± 0.3. While Teff of previous analyses is verified, log g is significantly lower. We re-analyzed lines of silicon and iron (1/100 and about solar abundances, respectively) and for the first time in this star identified argon, chromium, manganese, cobalt, and nickel and determined abundances of 12, 70, 35, 150, and 5 times solar, respectively. Our results partially agree with predictions of diffusion models for DA-type white dwarfs. A combination of photospheric and interstellar line-absorption models reproduces more than 90% of the observed absorption features. The stellar mass is M ≈ 0.48 M⊙.
Conclusions.BD−22°3467 may not have been massive enough to ascend the asymptotic giant branch and may have evolved directly from the extended horizontal branch to the white dwarf state. This would explain why it is not surrounded by a planetary nebula. However, the star, ionizes the ambient interstellar matter, mimicking a planetary nebula.
Key words: stars: abundances / stars: atmospheres / stars: evolution / stars: individual: BD-22 3467 / white dwarfs / planetary nebulae: individual: A66 35
Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666.
Tables 1 and 2, and Fig. 2 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
© ESO, 2012