Galaxy-galaxy(-galaxy) lensing as a sensitive probe of galaxy evolution
1 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn Germany
2 Kavli Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology (KIPAC), Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025
3 Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 1, 85741 Garching, Germany
Received: 5 April 2012
Accepted: 11 September 2012
Context. The gravitational lensing effect provides various ways to study the mass environment of galaxies.
Aims. We investigate how galaxy-galaxy(-galaxy) lensing can be used to test models of galaxy formation and evolution.
Methods. We consider two semi-analytic galaxy formation models based on the Millennium Run N-body simulation: the Durham model by Bower et al. (2006, MNRAS, 370, 645) and the Garching model by Guo et al. (2011, MNRAS, 413, 101). We generate mock lensing observations for the two models, and then employ Fast Fourier Transform methods to compute second- and third-order aperture statistics in the simulated fields for various galaxy samples.
Results. We find that both models predict qualitatively similar aperture signals, but there are large quantitative differences. The Durham model predicts larger amplitudes in general. In both models, red galaxies exhibit stronger aperture signals than blue galaxies. Using these aperture measurements and assuming a linear deterministic bias model, we measure relative bias ratios of red and blue galaxy samples. We find that a linear deterministic bias is insufficient to describe the relative clustering of model galaxies below ten arcmin angular scales. Dividing galaxies into luminosity bins, the aperture signals decrease with decreasing luminosity for brighter galaxies, but increase again for fainter galaxies. This increase is likely an artifact due to too many faint satellite galaxies in massive group and cluster halos predicted by the models.
Conclusions. Our study shows that galaxy-galaxy(-galaxy) lensing is a sensitive probe of galaxy evolution.
Key words: gravitational lensing: weak / large-scale structure of Universe / galaxies: formation / galaxies: evolution / methods: numerical
© ESO, 2012