Volume 537, January 2012
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Published online||10 January 2012|
Relativistic outflow drives γ-ray emission in 3C 345
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie,
Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131, USA
3 Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
4 Also an adjunct astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory
5 St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia
Accepted: 29 October 2011
Aims. On the basis of the first 20 months of Fermi-LAT data and optical monitoring, the quasar 3C 345 has been identified as a γ-ray emitter. We investigate whether there is a connection between the γ-ray and optical variability of 3C 345 and the properties of its parsec-scale radio emission.
Methods. We combined the Fermi-LAT data of 3C 345, covering an energy range of 0.1–300 GeV, with 32 Very Long Baseline Array observations of the object made at 43.2 GHz in the period of January 2008–March 2010.
Results. The VLBA data reveal the morphology and kinematics of the flow on scales of up to ≈5 milliarcseconds (deprojected linear distances of 380 parsecs). The brightness temperature, Tb(r), measured along the jet first decreases with distance ∝ r−(0.95 ± 0.69) and later exhibits a break at ≈ 0.3 milliarcseconds (mas), with Tb(r) ∝ r−(4.11 ± 0.85) at larger separations. Variations in the γ-ray, optical, and parsec-scale radio emission display a similar long-term trend that persists during the entire VLBA monitoring period. The γ-ray and optical variations on shorter timescales are related to structural changes in the jet on scales of ≈ 0.3 mas ( ≈ 23 parsecs, deprojected), with the γ-ray and optical flares possibly being related to the evolution of four distinct superluminal components identified in the flow.
Conclusions. The observations indicate that both the quiescent and flaring components of the γ-ray emission are produced in a region of the jet that extends up to ~23 pc. This region may correspond to the Compton-loss dominated zone of the flow and its large extent may favor the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism for γ-ray production in the relativistic jet of the quasar 3C 345.
Key words: galaxies: jets / galaxies: active / radio continuum: galaxies / gamma rays: galaxies / Galaxy: nucleus / galaxies: individual: 3C 345
© ESO, 2012
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