A relationship between the solar rotation and activity in the period 1998–2006 analysed by tracing small bright coronal structures in SOHO-EIT images
Physics Department, University of Rijeka Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kačićeva 26, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3 Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
4 Institut für Physik, IGAM, Universität Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010 Graz, Austria
5 Stanford University, HEPL, Stanford, CA 94305-4085, USA
6 SIDC, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ave. Circulaire 3, 1180 Brussels, Belgium
Received: 5 March 2010
Accepted: 4 August 2011
Aims. The study aims to find a relationship between the rotation of the small bright coronal structures (SBCS) described by the solar rotation parameters and indices of solar activity on monthly and yearly temporal scales.
Methods. We analyse precise measurements of the solar differential rotation determined by tracing SBCS in SOHO-EIT images and compare the derived solar rotation parameters with the status of solar activity in the period 1998 − 2006. Full-disc solar images obtained with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) were used to analyse solar differential rotation determined by tracing SBCS. An automatic method to identify and track the SBCS in EIT full-disc images with a six hour cadence is applied. We performed a statistical analysis of the monthly and yearly values of solar sidereal rotation velocity parameters A and B (corresponding to the equatorial rotation velocity and the gradient of the solar differential rotation, respectively) as a function of various solar activity indices.
Results. The dependence of the solar rotation on the phase of the solar cycle was found. It is clearly visible for the solar rotation parameter A, whilst the results are not conclusive for parameter B. The relationship between the solar rotation and activity, expressed by the monthly relative sunspot number, the smoothed monthly relative sunspot number, the yearly relative sunspot number, and the interdiurnal variability (IDV) index was investigated. The statistically significant correlation was found for the solar rotation parameter A, whilst a very low and insignificant correlation was obtained for the rotation parameter B.
Conclusions. During the maximum of the solar cycle 23 and just after it, the equatorial solar rotation velocity was lower than in other phases of the cycle, when there was less activity. This is consistent with other observational findings, obtained by different tracers and methods.
Key words: Sun: rotation / Sun: corona / Sun: activity
© ESO, 2011