Comparison of the sidereal angular velocity of subphotospheric layers and small bright coronal structures during the declining phase of solar cycle 23
Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, 79104 Freiburg, Germany e-mail: [amel;hw;mroth]@kis.uni-freiburg.de
2 Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4, France e-mail: email@example.com
3 Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kačićeva 26, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Accepted: 24 June 2009
Context. We compare solar differential rotation of subphotospheric layers derived from local helioseismology analysis of GONG++ dopplergrams and the one derived from tracing small bright coronal structures (SBCS) using EIT/SOHO images for the period August 2001–December 2006, which correspond to the declining phase of solar cycle 23.
Aims. The study aims to find a relationship between the rotation of the SBCS and the subphotospheric angular velocity. The north-south asymmetries of both rotation velocity measurements are also investigated.
Methods. Subphotospheric differential rotation was derived using ring-diagram analysis of GONG++ full-disk dopplergrams of 1 min cadence. The coronal rotation was derived by using an automatic method to identify and track the small bright coronal structures in EIT full-disk images of 6 h cadence.
Results. We find that the SBCS rotate faster than the considered upper subphotospheric layer (3 Mm) by about 0.5 deg/day at the equator. This result joins the results of several other magnetic features (sunspots, plages, faculae, etc.) with a higher rotation than the solar plasma. The rotation rate latitudinal gradients of the SBCS and the subphotospheric layers are very similar. The SBCS motion shows an acceleration of about day-1/month during the declining phase of solar cycle 23, whereas the angular velocity of subsurface layers does not display any evident variation with time, except for the well known torsional oscillation pattern. Finally, both subphotospheric and coronal rotations of the southern hemisphere are predominantly larger than those of the northern hemisphere. At latitudes where the north-south asymmetry of the angular velocity increases (decreases) with activity for the SBCS, it decreases (increases) for subphotospheric layers.
Key words: Sun: rotation / Sun: helioseismology / Sun: corona / methods: data analysis
© ESO, 2009