Laboratory H2O:CO2 ice desorption data: entrapment dependencies and its parameterization with an extended three-phase model
Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, Leiden
PO Box 9513,
2 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 42, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
3 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
Accepted: 21 February 2011
Context. Ice desorption affects the evolution of the gas-phase chemistry during the protostellar stage, and also determines the chemical composition of comets forming in circumstellar disks. From observations, most volatile species are found in H2O-dominated ices.
Aims. The aim of this study is first to experimentally determine how entrapment of volatiles in H2O ice depends on ice thickness, mixture ratio and heating rate, and second, to introduce an extended three-phase model (gas, ice surface and ice mantle) to describe ice mixture desorption with a minimum number of free parameters.
Methods. Thermal H2O:CO2 ice desorption is investigated in temperature programmed desorption experiments of thin (10–40 ML) ice mixtures under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Desorption is simultaneously monitored by mass spectrometry and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy. The H2O:CO2 experiments are complemented with selected H2O:CO, and H2O:CO2:CO experiments. The results are modeled with rate equations that connect the gas, ice surface and ice mantle phases through surface desorption and mantle-surface diffusion.
Results. The fraction of trapped CO2 increases with ice thickness (10–32 ML) and H2O:CO2 mixing ratio (5:1–10:1), but not with one order of magnitude different heating rates. The fraction of trapped CO2 is 44–84% with respect to the initial CO2 content for the investigated experimental conditions. This is reproduced quantitatively by the extended three-phase model that is introduced here. The H2O:CO and H2O:CO2:CO experiments are consistent with the H2O:CO2 desorption trends, suggesting that the model can be used for other ice species found in the interstellar medium to significantly improve the parameterization of ice desorption.
Key words: astrochemistry / methods: laboratory / methods: analytical / ISM: molecules
© ESO, 2011