Volume 516, June-July 2010
|Number of page(s)||26|
|Section||Cosmology (including clusters of galaxies)|
|Published online||29 June 2010|
Evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe from weak lensing tomography with COSMOS*
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands e-mail: email@example.com
2 Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, 53121 Bonn, Germany
3 Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS UMR 7095 & UPMC, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France
4 Shanghai Key Lab for Astrophysics, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, PR China
5 The Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, UK
6 Physics Dept., University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA
7 Physics department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93601, USA
8 Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
9 Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
10 Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching, Germany
11 KIPAC, PO Box 20450, MS29, Stanford, CA 94309, USA
12 University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1, Canada
Accepted: 8 March 2010
We present a comprehensive analysis of weak gravitational lensing by large-scale structure in the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), in which we combine space-based galaxy shape measurements with ground-based photometric redshifts to study the redshift dependence of the lensing signal and constrain cosmological parameters. After applying our weak lensing-optimized data reduction, principal-component interpolation for the spatially, and temporally varying ACS point-spread function, and improved modelling of charge-transfer inefficiency, we measured a lensing signal that is consistent with pure gravitational modes and no significant shape systematics. We carefully estimated the statistical uncertainty from simulated COSMOS-like fields obtained from ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation, including the full non-Gaussian sampling variance. We tested our lensing pipeline on simulated space-based data, recalibrated non-linear power spectrum corrections using the ray-tracing analysis, employed photometric redshift information to reduce potential contamination by intrinsic galaxy alignments, and marginalized over systematic uncertainties. We find that the weak lensing signal scales with redshift as expected from general relativity for a concordance ΛCDM cosmology, including the full cross-correlations between different redshift bins. Assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology, we measure (/0.3 = 0.75±0.08 from lensing, in perfect agreement with WMAP-5, yielding joint constraints = , = (all 68.3% conf.). Dropping the assumption of flatness and using priors from the HST Key Project and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis only, we find a negative deceleration parameter q0 at 94.3% confidence from the tomographic lensing analysis, providing independent evidence of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. For a flat wCDM cosmology and prior w ∈ [-2,0], we obtain w <-0.41 (90% conf.). Our dark energy constraints are still relatively weak solely due to the limited area of COSMOS. However, they provide an important demonstration of the usefulness of tomographic weak lensing measurements from space.
Key words: cosmological parameters / dark matter / large-scale structure of Universe / gravitational lensing: weak
Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archives at the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility and the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
© ESO, 2010
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