JKCS 041: a colour-detected galaxy cluster at ~ 1.9 with deep potential well as confirmed by X-ray data
INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Brera 28, 20121 Milano, Italy e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Department of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK
3 Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Accepted: 24 September 2009
We report the discovery of JKCS 041, a massive near-infrared selected cluster of galaxies at ~1.9. The cluster was originally discovered using a modified red-sequence method and also detected in follow-up Chandra data as an extended X-ray source. Optical and near-infrared imaging data alone allow us to show that the detection of JKCS 041 is secure, even in the absence of the X-ray data. We investigate the possibility that JKCS 041 is not a galaxy cluster at z ~ 1.9, and find other explanations unlikely. The X-ray detection and statistical arguments rule out the hypothesis that JKCS 041 is actually a blend of groups along the line of sight, and we find that the X-ray emitting gas is too hot and dense to be a filament projected along the line of sight. The absence of a central radio source and the extent and morphology of the X-ray emission argue against the possibility that the X-ray emission comes from inverse Compton scattering of CMB photons by a radio plasma. The cluster has an X-ray core radius of arcsec (about 300 kpc), an X-ray temperature of keV, a bolometric X-ray luminosity within R500 of (7.6±0.5) 1044 erg s-1, and an estimated mass of M500 = 1014 , the last derived under the usual (and strong) assumptions. The cluster is composed of 16.4 ± 6.3 galaxies within 1.5 arcmin (750 kpc) brighter than K ~ 20.7 mag. The high redshift of JKCS 041 is determined from the detection colour, from the detection of the cluster in a galaxy sample formed by > 1.6 galaxies and from a photometric redshift based on 11-band spectral energy distribution fitting. By means of the latter we find the cluster redshift to be 1.84 < z < 2.12 at 68% confidence. Therefore, JKCS 041 is a cluster of galaxies at ~ 1.9 with a deep potential well, making it the most distant cluster with extended X-ray emission known.
Key words: galaxies: evolution / galaxies: clusters: general / galaxies: clusters: individual: JKCS 041 / cosmology: dark matter / X-rays: galaxies: clusters / methods: statistical
© ESO, 2009