Volume 507, Number 1, November III 2009
|Page(s)||327 - 345|
|Section||Interstellar and circumstellar matter|
|Published online||08 September 2009|
C2D Spitzer-IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars*
IV. Crystalline silicates
Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, Université Joseph Fourier, CNRS, UMR 5571, Grenoble, France e-mail: email@example.com
2 Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
3 Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
4 Herschel Science Centre, SRE-SDH, ESA PO Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
5 SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
6 The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Astronomy, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, Texas 787120259, USA
7 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
8 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences 150-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
9 Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
10 Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4, Canada
11 Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Accepted: 26 August 2009
Aims. Dust grains in the planet-forming regions around young stars are expected to be heavily processed due to coagulation, fragmentation, and crystallization. This paper focuses on the crystalline silicate dust grains in protoplanetary disks for a statistically significant number of TTauri stars (96).
Methods. As part of the cores to disks (c2d) legacy program, we obtained more than a hundred Spitzer/IRS spectra of TTauri stars, over a spectral range of 5-35 μm where many silicate amorphous and crystalline solid-state features are present. At these wavelengths, observations probe the upper layers of accretion disks up to distances of a dozen AU from the central object.
Results. More than 3/4 of our objects show at least one crystalline silicate emission feature that can be essentially attributed to Mg-rich silicates. The Fe-rich crystalline silicates are largely absent in the c2d IRS spectra. The strength and detection frequency of the crystalline features seen at λ > 20 μm correlate with each other, while they are largely uncorrelated with the observational properties of the amorphous silicate 10 μm feature. This supports the idea that the IRS spectra essentially probe two independent disk regions: a warm zone (≤1 AU) emitting at λ ~ 10 μm and a much colder region emitting at λ > 20 μm (≤10 AU). We identify a crystallinity paradox, as the long-wavelength (λ > 20 μm) crystalline silicate features are detected 3.5 times more frequently (~55% vs. ~15%) than the crystalline features arising from much warmer disk regions (λ ~10 μm). This suggests that the disk has an inhomogeneous dust composition within ~10 AU. The analysis of the shape and strength of both the amorphous 10 μm feature and the crystalline feature around 23 μm provides evidence for the prevalence of μm-sized (amorphous and crystalline) grains in upper layers of disks.
Conclusions. The abundant crystalline silicates found far from their presumed formation regions suggest efficient outward radial transport mechanisms in the disks around TTauri stars. The presence of μm-sized grains in disk atmospheres, despite the short timescales for settling to the midplane, suggests efficient (turbulent) vertical diffusion, probably accompanied by grain-grain fragmentation to balance the expected efficient growth. In this scenario, the depletion of submicron-sized grains in the upper layers of the disks points toward removal mechanisms such as stellar winds or radiation pressure.
Key words: stars: pre-main sequence / planetary systems: protoplanetary disks / circumstellar matter / infrared: stars / methods: statistical / techniques: spectroscopic
© ESO, 2009
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