Star formation in Perseus*
II. SEDs, classification, and lifetimes
School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL, UK e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Manchester, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, UK
3 Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
4 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA 17837, USA
Accepted: 26 March 2007
Context.Hatchell et al. (2005, A&A, 440, 151) (Paper I) published a submillimetre continuum map of the Perseus molecular cloud, detecting the starless and protostellar cores within it.
Aims.To determine the evolutionary stage of each submm core in Perseus, and investigate the lifetimes of these phases.
Methods.We compile spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from 2MASS (1–2 ), Spitzer IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0 ), Michelle (11 and 18 ), IRAS (12, 25, 60, 100 ), SCUBA (450 and 850 ) and Bolocam (1100 ) data. Sources are classified starless/protostellar on the basis of infrared and/or outflow detections and Class I/Class 0 on the basis of Tbol, Lbol and . In order to investigate the dependence of these evolutionary indicators on mass, we construct radiative transfer models of Class 0 sources.
Results.Of the submm cores, 56/103 (54%) are confirmed protostars on the basis of infrared emission or molecular outflows. Of these, 22 are classified Class 1 on the basis of three evolutionary indicators, 34 are Class 0, and the remaining 47 are assumed starless. Perseus contains a much greater fraction of Class 0 sources than either Taurus or Rho Oph. We derive estimates for the correlation between bolometric luminosity and envelope mass for Class I and Class 0 sources.
Conclusions.Comparing the protostellar with the T Tauri population, the lifetime of the protostellar phase in Perseus is Myr (95% confidence limits). The relative lifetime of the Class 0 and Class 1 phases are similar, confirming the results of Visser et al. (2002, AJ, 124, 2756) in isolated cores. We find that for the same source geometry but different masses, evolutionary indicators such as Tbol vary their value. It is therefore not always appropriate to use a fixed threshold to separate Class 0 and Class I sources. More modelling is required to determine the observational characteristics of the Class 0/Class I boundary over a range of masses.
Key words: submillimeter / stars: formation / stars: evolution / ISM: structure / ISM: dust, extinction
© ESO, 2007