Role of environment and gas temperature in the formation of multiple protostellar systems: molecular tracers★
Leiden Observatory, Leiden University,
PO Box 9513,
Leiden, The Netherlands
2 Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, 85748, Garching bei München, Germany
3 Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, Oklahoma 73019, USA
4 Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
5 Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Torun, Poland
Accepted: 12 September 2018
Context. Simulations suggest that gas heating due to radiative feedback is a key factor in whether or not multiple protostellar systems will form. Chemistry is a good tracer of the physical structure of a protostellar system, since it depends on the temperature structure.
Aims. We aim to study the relationship between envelope gas temperature and protostellar multiplicity.
Methods. Single dish observations of various molecules that trace the cold, warm, and UV-irradiated gas were used to probe the temperature structure of multiple and single protostellar systems on 7000 AU scales.
Results. Single, close binary, and wide multiples present similar current envelope gas temperatures, as estimated from H2CO and DCO+ line ratios. The temperature of the outflow cavity, traced by c-C3H2, on the other hand, shows a relation with bolometric luminosity and an anticorrelation with envelope mass. Although the envelope gas temperatures are similar for all objects surveyed, wide multiples tend to exhibit a more massive reservoir of cold gas compared to close binary and single protostars.
Conclusions. Although the sample of protostellar systems is small, the results suggest that gas temperature may not have a strong impact on fragmentation. We propose that mass, and density, may instead be key factors in fragmentation.
Key words: astrochemistry / stars: formation / stars: low-mass / ISM: molecules / methods: observational
The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/620/A30
© ESO 2018