The cooling of atomic and molecular gas in DR21
KOSMA, I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Straße 77, 50937 Köln, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2 SAp/CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
3 Observatoire de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux 1, BP 89, 33270 Floirac, France
4 SRON, National Institute for Space Research, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
Accepted: 11 September 2006
Aims. We present an overview of a high-mass star formation region through the major (sub-)mm, and far-infrared cooling lines to gain insight into the physical conditions and the energy budget of the molecular cloud.
Methods. We used the KOSMA 3 m telescope to map the core () of the Galactic star-forming region DR21/DR21 (OH) in the Cygnus X region in the two fine structure lines of atomic carbon ( and ), in four mid-J transitions of CO and 13CO, and in CS . These observations were combined with FCRAO observations of 13CO and C18O. Five positions, including DR21, DR21 (OH), and DR21 FIR1, were observed with the ISO/LWS grating spectrometer in the  63 and 145 μm lines, the  158 μm line, and four high-J CO lines. We discuss the intensities and line ratios at these positions and apply the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE analysis methods in order to derive physical parameters such as mass, density and temperature. The CO line emission was modeled up to .
Results. From non-LTE modeling of the low- to high-J CO lines, we identify two gas components, a cold one at temperatures of K and one with K at a local clump density of about n(H2) ~ cm-3. While the cold quiescent component is massive, typically containing more than 94% of the mass, the warm, dense, and turbulent gas is dominated by mid- and high-J CO line emission and its large line widths. The medium must be clumpy with a volume-filling of a few percent. The CO lines are found to be important in cooling the cold molecular gas, e.g. at DR21 (OH). Near the outflow of the UV-heated source DR21, the gas cooling is dominated by line emission of atomic oxygen and of CO. Atomic and ionised carbon play a minor role.
Key words: ISM: clouds / ISM: abundances / radio lines: ISM / line: profiles / stars: formation / ISM: individual objects: DR21 / ISM: individual objects: DR21 (OH)
© ESO, 2007